Comprehensive Mold Toxin Research

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Ochratoxin Medical Literature

__Review Papers

__Effects on Kidneys

Prabu P. C., Dwivedi P., Sharma A. K.. Toxicopathological studies on the effects of aflatoxin B(1), ochratoxin A and their interaction in New Zealand White rabbits. Experimental and toxicologic pathology. 2013;65:277–286.

Shen Xiao Li L., Zhang Yu, Xu Wentao, et al. An iTRAQ-based mitoproteomics approach for profiling the nephrotoxicity mechanisms of ochratoxin A in HEK 293 cells. Journal of proteomics. 2013;78:398–415.

Stachurska Anna, Ciesla Maciej, Kozakowska Magdalena, et al. Cross-talk between microRNAs, nuclear factor E2-related factor 2, and heme oxygenase-1 in ochratoxin A induced toxic effects in renal proximal tubular epithelial cells. Molecular nutrition & food research. 2013;57:504–515.

Pleadin Jelka, Perši Nina, Mitak Mario, et al. Biochemical changes in pig serum after ochratoxin A exposure. Bulletin of environmental contamination and toxicology. 2012;88:1043–1047.

Hmaissia Khlifa K., Ghali R., Mazigh C., Aouni Z., Machgoul S., Hedhili A.. Ochratoxin A levels in human serum and foods from nephropathy patients in Tunisia: where are you now? Experimental and toxicologic pathology. 2012;64:509–512.

Kumar Manoj, Dwivedi Prabhaker, Sharma Anil Kumar K., Sankar Muthu, Patil Rajendra D., Singh Nittin Dev D.. Apoptosis and lipid peroxidation in ochratoxin A- and citrinin-induced nephrotoxicity in rabbits. Toxicology and industrial health. 2012.

Jilani Kashif, Lupescu Adrian, Zbidah Mohanad, Abed Majed, Shaik Nazneen, Lang Florian. Enhanced apoptotic death of erythrocytes induced by the mycotoxin ochratoxin A. Kidney & blood pressure research. 2012;36:107–118.

Sorrenti Valeria, Di Giacomo Claudia, Acquaviva Rosaria, et al. Dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase/nitric oxide synthase pathway in liver and kidney: protective effect of cyanidin 3-O-?-D-glucoside on ochratoxin-A toxicity. Toxins. 2012;4:353–363.

Li Zengning, Zhang Xianghong, Cui Jinfeng, Kang Weijun. Assessment on pollution of Ochratoxin A in grain in China and its apoptosis effect on vitro-cultured human tubular kidney cells. Journal of biochemical and molecular toxicology. 2012;26:139–146.

Hennemeier Isabell, Humpf Hans-Ulrich U., Gekle Michael, Schwerdt Gerald. The food contaminant and nephrotoxin ochratoxin A enhances Wnt1 inducible signaling protein 1 and tumor necrosis factor-? expression in human primary proximal tubule cells. Molecular nutrition & food research. 2012;56:1375–1384.

Stoev Stoycho D., Gundasheva Dimitrina, Zarkov Ivan, et al. Experimental mycotoxic nephropathy in pigs provoked by a mouldy diet containing ochratoxin A and fumonisin B1. Experimental and toxicologic pathology. 2012;64:733–741.

Klari? Maja Segvi? S., Zelježi? Davor, Rumora Lada, Peraica Maja, Pepeljnjak Stjepan, Domijan Ana-Marija M.. A potential role of calcium in apoptosis and aberrant chromatin forms in porcine kidney PK15 cells induced by individual and combined ochratoxin A and citrinin. Archives of toxicology. 2012;86:97–107.

Jennings Paul, Weiland Christina, Limonciel Alice, et al. Transcriptomic alterations induced by Ochratoxin A in rat and human renal proximal tubular in vitro models and comparison to a rat in vivo model. Archives of toxicology. 2012;86:571–589.

Taniai Eriko, Hayashi Hitomi, Yafune Atsunori, et al. Cellular distribution of cell cyclerelated molecules in the renal tubules of rats treated with renal carcinogens for 28 days: relationship between cell cycle aberration and carcinogenesis. Archives of toxicology. 2012;86:1453–1464.

Mally Angela. Ochratoxin a and mitotic disruption: mode of action analysis of renal tumor formation by ochratoxin A. Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology. 2012;127:315–330.

Radford Robert, Slattery Craig, Jennings Paul, et al. Carcinogens induce loss of the primary cilium in human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells independently of effects on the cell cycle. American journal of physiology. Renal physiology. 2012;302. Jutabha Promsuk, Anzai Naohiko, Hayashi Keitaro, et al. A novel human organic anion transporter NPT4 mediates the transport of ochratoxin A. Journal of pharmacological sciences. 2011;116:392–396.

Zaied Chiraz, Bouaziz Chayma, Azizi Islam, et al. Presence of ochratoxin A in Tunisian blood nephropathy patients. Exposure level to OTA. Experimental and toxicologic pathology. 2011;63:613–618.

Duarte Sofia Cancela C., Pena Angelina, Lino Celeste Matos M.. Human ochratoxin a biomarkers–from exposure to effect. Critical reviews in toxicology. 2011;41:187–212. Stachurska Anna, Kozakowska Magdalena, Jozkowicz Alicja, Dulak Jozef, Loboda Agnieszka. Aristolochic acid I and ochratoxin A differentially regulate VEGF expression in porcine kidney epithelial cells–the involvement of SP-1 and HIFs transcription factors. Toxicology letters. 2011;204:118–126.

Desalegn Biruck, Nanayakkara Shanika, Harada Kouji H., et al. Mycotoxin detection in urine samples from patients with chronic kidney disease of uncertain etiology in Sri Lanka. Bulletin of environmental contamination and toxicology. 2011;87:6–10.

Vettorazzi Ariane, Trocóniz Iñaki Fernández F., González-Peñas Elena, et al. Kidney and liver distribution of ochratoxin A in male and female F344 rats. Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association. 2011;49:1935–1942.

Mili?evi? Dragan, Jovanovi? Milijan, Matekalo-Sverak Vesna, Radicevi? Tatjana, Petrovi? Milan M., Lili? Slobodan. A survey of spontaneous occurrence of ochratoxin A residues in chicken tissues and concurrence with histopathological changes in liver and kidneys. Journal of environmental science and health. Part C, Environmental carcinogenesis & ecotoxicology reviews. 2011;29:159–175.

Hibi Daisuke, Suzuki Yuta, Ishii Yuji, et al. Site-specific in vivo mutagenicity in the kidney of gpt delta rats given a carcinogenic dose of ochratoxin A. Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology. 2011;122:406–414.

Li Jinghua, Yin Shutao, Dong Yinhui, Fan Lihong, Hu Hongbo. p53 activation inhibits ochratoxin A-induced apoptosis in monkey and human kidney epithelial cells via suppression of JNK activation. Biochemical and biophysical research communications. 2011;411:458–463.

Abdu Suzan, Ali Awatif, Ansari Shatha. Cytotoxic effect of ochratoxin A on the renal corpuscles of rat kidney: could ochratoxin A cause kidney failure? Histology and histopathology. 2011;26:543–549.

Ellis James Keith K., Athersuch Toby James J., Cavill Rachel, et al. Metabolic response to low-level toxicant exposure in a novel renal tubule epithelial cell system. Molecular bioSystems. 2011;7:247–257.

Mantle Peter G., Dobrota Miloslav, Gillett Cheryl E., Odell Edward W., Pinder Sarah E.. Oncological outcomes in rats given nephrocarcinogenic exposure to dietary ochratoxin a, followed by the tumour promoter sodium barbital for life: a pilot study. Toxins. 2010;2:552–571.

Golli-Bennour Emna El E., Kouidhi Bochra, Bouslimi Amel, Abid-Essefi Salwa, Hassen Wafa, Bacha Hassen. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity induced by aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A, and their combination in cultured Vero cells. Journal of biochemical and molecular toxicology. 2010;24:42–50.

Hoffmann Dana, Fuchs Tobias C., Henzler Tanja, et al. Evaluation of a urinary kidney biomarker panel in rat models of acute and subchronic nephrotoxicity. Toxicology. 2010;277:49–58.

Mantle Peter G., Amerasinghe Cyrille, Brown Amy L., et al. A pilot study of nuclear instability in archived renal and upper urinary tract tumours with putative ochratoxin aetiology. Toxins. 2010;2:326–340.

Stoev S. D., Dutton M. F., Njobeh P. B., Mosonik J. S., Steenkamp P. A.. Mycotoxic nephropathy in Bulgarian pigs and chickens: complex aetiology and similarity to Balkan endemic nephropathy. Food additives & contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, analysis, control, exposure & risk assessment. 2010;27:72–88.

Mantle Peter G., McHugh Katharine M., Fincham John E.. Contrasting nephropathic responses to oral administration of extract of cultured Penicillium polonicum in rat and primate. Toxins. 2010;2:2083–2097.

Anzai Naohiko, Jutabha Promsuk, Endou Hitoshi. Molecular mechanism of ochratoxin a transport in the kidney. Toxins. 2010;2:1381–1398.

Mantle Peter G., Nolan Christopher C.. Pathological outcomes in kidney and brain in male Fischer rats given dietary ochratoxin A, commencing at one year of age. Toxins. 2010;2:1100–1110.

Mantle Peter, Kulinskaya Elena. Lifetime, low-dose ochratoxin A dietary study on renal carcinogenesis in male Fischer rats. Food additives & contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, analysis, control, exposure & risk assessment. 2010;27:1566–1573.

Aoudia N., Callu P., Grosjean F., Larondelle Y.. Effectiveness of mycotoxin sequestration activity of micronized wheat fibres on distribution of ochratoxin A in plasma, liver and kidney of piglets fed a naturally contaminated diet. Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association. 2009;47:1485–1489.

Schwerdt Gerald, Holzinger Hildegard, Königs Maika, Humpf Hans-Ulrich U., Gekle Michael. Effect of ochratoxin A on cell survival and collagen homeostasis in human mesangial cells in primary culture. Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association. 2009;47:209–213.

Domijan Ana-Marija M., Peraica Maja, Markov Ksenija, Fuchs Radovan. Urine ochratoxin a and sphinganine/sphingosine ratio in residents of the endemic nephropathy area in Croatia. Arhiv za higijenu rada i toksikologiju. 2009;60:387–393.

Pfohl-Leszkowicz Annie. Ochratoxin A and aristolochic acid involvement in nephropathies and associated urothelial tract tumours. Arhiv za higijenu rada i toksikologiju. 2009;60:465–483.

Boesch-Saadatmandi C., Wagner A. E., Graeser A. C., Hundhausen C., Wolffram S., Rimbach G.. Ochratoxin A impairs Nrf2-dependent gene expression in porcine kidney tubulus cells. Journal of animal physiology and animal nutrition. 2009;93:547–554.

Zlender Vilim, Breljak Davorka, Ljubojevi? Marija, et al. Low doses of ochratoxin A upregulate the protein expression of organic anion transporters Oat1, Oat2, Oat3 and Oat5 in rat kidney cortex. Toxicology and applied pharmacology. 2009;239:284–296.

Mantle Peter G.. Minimum tolerable exposure period and maximum threshold dietary intake of ochratoxin A for causing renal cancer in male Dark Agouti rats. Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association. 2009;47:2419–2424.

Stemmer Kerstin, Ellinger-Ziegelbauer Heidrun, Ahr Hans-Jürgen J., Dietrich Daniel R.. Molecular characterization of preneoplastic lesions provides insight on the development of renal tumors. The American journal of pathology. 2009;175:1686–1698.

Bouslimi Amel, Bouaziz Chayma, Ayed-Boussema Imen, Hassen Wafa, Bacha Hassen. Individual and combined effects of ochratoxin A and citrinin on viability and DNA fragmentation in cultured Vero cells and on chromosome aberrations in mice bone marrow cells. Toxicology. 2008;251:1–7.

Peraica Maja, Domijan Ana-Marija M., Sari? Marko. Mycotoxic and aristolochic acid theories of the development of endemic nephropathy. Arhiv za higijenu rada i toksikologiju. 2008;59:59–65.

Yokoyama Hirokazu, Anzai Naohiko, Ljubojevic Marija, et al. Functional and immunochemical characterization of a novel organic anion transporter Oat8 (Slc22a9) in rat renal collecting duct. Cellular physiology and biochemistry : international journal of experimental cellular physiology, biochemistry, and pharmacology. 2008;21:269–278.

Mili?evi? Dragan, Juri? Verica, Stefanovi? Srdan, Jovanovi? Milijan, Jankovi? Sasa. Survey of slaughtered pigs for occurrence of ochratoxin A and porcine nephropathy in Serbia. International journal of molecular sciences. 2008;9:2169–2183.

Mantle Peter G., Nagy Judit M.. Binding of ochratoxin A to a urinary globulin: a new concept to account for gender difference in rat nephrocarcinogenic responses. International journal of molecular sciences. 2008;9:719–735.

Bouslimi Amel, Ouannes Zouhour, Golli Emna El E., Bouaziz Chayma, Hassen Wafa, Bacha Hassen. Cytotoxicity and oxidative damage in kidney cells exposed to the mycotoxins ochratoxin a and citrinin: individual and combined effects. Toxicology mechanisms and methods. 2008;18:341–349.

Peraica Maja, Domijan Ana-Marija M., Mileti?-Medved Marica, Fuchs Radovan. The involvement of mycotoxins in the development of endemic nephropathy. Wiener klinische Wochenschrift. 2008;120:402–407.

Hmaissia Khlifa K., Ghali R., Mezigh C., et al. Serum levels of ochratoxin A in healthy subjects and in nephropathic patients in Tunisia. Annales de biologie clinique. 2008;66:631–636.

Rached Eva, Hoffmann Dana, Blumbach Kai, Weber Klaus, Dekant Wolfgang, Mally Angela. Evaluation of putative biomarkers of nephrotoxicity after exposure to ochratoxin a in vivo and in vitro. Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology. 2008;103:371–381.

Arbillaga Leire, Vettorazzi Ariane, Gil Ana G., Delft Joost Hm H., García-Jalón José Antonio A., Cerain Adela. Gene expression changes induced by ochratoxin A in renal and hepatic tissues of male F344 rat after oral repeated administration. Toxicology and applied pharmacology. 2008;230:197–207.

Boesch-Saadatmandi C., Loboda A., Jozkowicz A., et al. Effect of ochratoxin A on redox-regulated transcription factors, antioxidant enzymes and glutathione-Stransferase in cultured kidney tubulus cells. Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association. 2008;46:2665–2671.

Wanigasuriya Kamani P., Peiris Hemantha, Ileperuma Nalaka, Peiris-John Roshini J., Wickremasinghe Rajitha. Could ochratoxin A in food commodities be the cause of chronic kidney disease in Sri Lanka? Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 2008;102:726–728.

Karmaus Wilfried, Dimitrov Plamen, Simeonov Valeri, Tsolova Svetla, Bonev Angel, Georgieva Rossitza. Metals and kidney markers in adult offspring of endemic nephropathy patients and controls: a two-year follow-up study. Environmental health : a global access science source. 2008;7.

Verma Ramtej, Chakraborty Devjani. Alterations in DNA, RNA and protein contents in liver and kidney of mice treated with ochratoxin and their amelioration by Emblica officinalis aqueous extract. Acta poloniae pharmaceutica. 2008;65:3–9.

Delatour Thierry, Mally Angela, Richoz Janique, et al. Absence of 2?-deoxyguanosinecarbon 8-bound ochratoxin A adduct in rat kidney DNA monitored by isotope dilution LCMS/MS. Molecular nutrition & food research. 2008;52:472–482.

Schmidt-Heydt M., Geisen R.. Gene expression as an indication for ochratoxin A biosynthesis in Penicillium nordicum. Mycotoxin research. 2007;23:13–21.

Rached Eva, Hard Gordon C., Blumbach Kai, et al. Ochratoxin A: 13-week oral toxicity and cell proliferation in male F344/n rats. Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology. 2007;97:288–298.

Mally A., Hard G. C., Dekant W.. Ochratoxin A as a potential etiologic factor in endemic nephropathy: lessons from toxicity studies in rats. Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association. 2007;45:2254–2260.

Stemmer Kerstin, Ellinger-Ziegelbauer Heidrun, Ahr Hans-Juergen J., Dietrich Daniel R.. Carcinogen-specific gene expression profiles in short-term treated Eker and wild-type rats indicative of pathways involved in renal tumorigenesis. Cancer research. 2007;67:4052–4068.

Brown Amy L., Odell Edward W., Mantle Peter G.. DNA ploidy distribution in renal tumours induced in male rats by dietary ochratoxin A. Experimental and toxicologic pathology. 2007;59:85–95.

Schwerdt Gerald, Holzinger Hildegard, Sauvant Christoph, Königs Maika, Humpf Hans-Ulrich U., Gekle Michael. Long-term effects of ochratoxin A on fibrosis and cell death in human proximal tubule or fibroblast cells in primary culture. Toxicology. 2007;232:57–67.

Pfohl-Leszkowicz Annie, Tozlovanu Mariana, Manderville Richard, Peraica Maja, Castegnaro Marcel, Stefanovic Vladislav. New molecular and field evidences for the implication of mycotoxins but not aristolochic acid in human nephropathy and urinary tract tumor. Molecular nutrition & food research. 2007;51:1131–1146.

Kumar Manoj, Dwivedi Prabhaker, Sharma Anil K., Singh Nittin Dev D., Patil Rajendra D.. Ochratoxin A and citrinin nephrotoxicity in New Zealand White rabbits: an ultrastructural assessment. Mycopathologia. 2007;163:21–30.

Dinis A. M., Lino C. M., Pena A. S.. Ochratoxin A in nephropathic patients from two cities of central zone in Portugal. Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis. 2007;44:553–557.

Grajewski J., Jarzemski P., Twaruzek M., Kuzminska K., Trepala M.. The level of ochratoxin a in patients after nephrectomy. Mycotoxin research. 2007;23:22–26.

Arbillaga Leire, Azqueta Amaia, Ezpeleta Olga, Cerain Adela. Oxidative DNA damage induced by Ochratoxin A in the HK-2 human kidney cell line: evidence of the relationship with cytotoxicity. Mutagenesis. 2007;22:35–42.

Marin-Kuan M., Nestler S., Verguet C., et al. MAPK-ERK activation in kidney of male rats chronically fed ochratoxin A at a dose causing a significant incidence of renal carcinoma. Toxicology and applied pharmacology. 2007;224:174–181.

Costa S., Utan A., Cervellati R., Speroni E., Guerra M. C.. Catechins: natural freeradical scavengers against ochratoxin A-induced cell damage in a pig kidney cell line (LLC-PK1). Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association. 2007;45:1910–1917.

Klari? Maja Segvi? S., Pepeljnjak Stjepan, Domijan Ana-Marija M., Petrik József. Lipid peroxidation and glutathione levels in porcine kidney PK15 cells after individual and combined treatment with fumonisin B(1), beauvericin and ochratoxin A. Basic & clinical pharmacology & toxicology. 2007;100:157–164.

Heussner A. H., O?Brien E., Dietrich D. R.. Effects of repeated ochratoxin exposure on renal cells in vitro. Toxicology in vitro : an international journal published in association with BIBRA. 2007;21:72–80.

Rached Eva, Pfeiffer Erika, Dekant Wolfgang, Mally Angela. Ochratoxin A: apoptosis and aberrant exit from mitosis due to perturbation of microtubule dynamics? Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology. 2006;92:78–86.

Gresham A., Done S., Livesey C., et al. Survey of pigs? kidneys with lesions consistent with PMWS and PDNS and ochratoxicosis. Part 2: pathological and histological findings. The Veterinary record. 2006;159:761–768.

Domijan Ana-Marija M., Zeljezi? Davor, Kopjar Nevenka, Peraica Maja. Standard and Fpg-modified comet assay in kidney cells of ochratoxin A- and fumonisin B(1)-treated rats. Toxicology. 2006;222:53–59.

Faucet-Marquis Virginie, Pont Frédéric, Størmer Frederik C., Rizk Toufik, Castegnaro Marcel, Pfohl-Leszkowicz Annie. Evidence of a new dechlorinated ochratoxin A derivative formed in opossum kidney cell cultures after pretreatment by modulators of glutathione pathways: correlation with DNA-adduct formation. Molecular nutrition & food research. 2006;50:530–542.

Gresham A., Done S., Livesey C., et al. Survey of pigs? kidneys with lesions consistent with PMWS and PDNS and ochratoxicosis. Part 1: concentrations and prevalence of ochratoxin A. The Veterinary record. 2006;159:737–742.

Zeljezi? D., Domijan A-M M., Peraica M.. DNA damage by ochratoxin A in rat kidney assessed by the alkaline comet assay. Brazilian journal of medical and biological research = Revista brasileira de pesquisas médicas e biológicas / Sociedade Brasileira de Biofísica … [et al.]. 2006;39:1563–1568.

Mally Angela, Decker Martina, Bekteshi Michaela, Dekant Wolfgang. Ochratoxin A alters cell adhesion and gap junction intercellular communication in MDCK cells. Toxicology. 2006;223:15–25.

Bow Daniel A., Perry Jennifer L., Simon John D., Pritchard John B.. The impact of plasma protein binding on the renal transport of organic anions. The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics. 2006;316:349–355.

Heussner A. H., Dietrich D. R., O?Brien E.. In vitro investigation of individual and combined cytotoxic effects of ochratoxin A and other selected mycotoxins on renal cells. Toxicology in vitro : an international journal published in association with BIBRA. 2006;20:332–341.

Mally Angela, Keim-Heusler Heike, Amberg Alexander, et al. Biotransformation and nephrotoxicity of ochratoxin B in rats. Toxicology and applied pharmacology. 2005;206:43–53.

Fuchs R., Peraica M.. Ochratoxin A in human kidney diseases. Food additives and contaminants. 2005;22 Suppl 1:53–57.

Domijan Ana-Marija M., Rudes Kamilo, Peraica Maja. The effect of ochratoxin A on the concentration of protein carbonyls in rats. Arhiv za higijenu rada i toksikologiju. 2005;56:311–315.

Mally Angela, Völkel Wolfgang, Amberg Alexander, et al. Functional, biochemical, and pathological effects of repeated oral administration of ochratoxin A to rats. Chemical research in toxicology. 2005;18:1242–1252.

Knecht A., Schwerdt G., Gekle M., Humpf H-U U.. Combinatory effects of citrinin and ochratoxin A in immortalized human proximal tubule cells. Mycotoxin research. 2005;21:176–181.

Kamp Hennicke G., Eisenbrand Gerhard, Janzowski Christine, et al. Ochratoxin A induces oxidative DNA damage in liver and kidney after oral dosing to rats. Molecular nutrition & food research. 2005;49:1160–1167.

Sauvant C., Holzinger H., Gekle M.. Proximal tubular toxicity of ochratoxin A is amplified by simultaneous inhibition of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2. The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics. 2005;313:234–241.

Gagliano Nicoletta, Torri Carlo, Donetti Elena, et al. Ochratoxin A-induced renal cortex fibrosis and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition: molecular mechanisms of ochratoxin A-injury and potential effects of red wine. Molecular medicine (Cambridge, Mass.). 2005;11:30–38.

Mantle Peter, Kulinskaya Elena, Nestler Sandra. Renal tumourigenesis in male rats in response to chronic dietary ochratoxin A. Food additives and contaminants. 2005;22 Suppl 1:58–64.

Kwak Jin-Oh O., Kim Hyun-Woo W., Oh Kwang-Jin J., Ko Chang-Bo B., Park Hwayong, Cha Seok Ho H.. Characterization of mouse organic anion transporter 5 as a renal steroid sulfate transporter. The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology. 2005;97:369–375.

Anzai Naohiko, Jutabha Promsuk, Enomoto Atsushi, et al. Functional characterization of rat organic anion transporter 5 (Slc22a19) at the apical membrane of renal proximal tubules. The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics. 2005;315:534–544.

Sauvant Christoph, Holzinger Hildegard, Gekle Michael. The nephrotoxin ochratoxin A induces key parameters of chronic interstitial nephropathy in renal proximal tubular cells. Cellular physiology and biochemistry : international journal of experimental cellular physiology, biochemistry, and pharmacology. 2005;15:125–134.

Blazer-Yost Bonnie L., West T. Aaron, Stack Jamie, Peck Kerrie, Lahr Thomas F., Gekle Michael. Effect of the mycotoxin, ochratoxin A, on hormone-stimulated ion transport in a physiology. 2005;450:53–60.

Sauvant Christoph, Holzinger Hildegard, Mildenberger Sigrid, Gekle Michael. Exposure to nephrotoxic ochratoxin A enhances collagen secretion in human renal proximal tubular cells. Molecular nutrition & food research. 2005;49:31–37.

Domijan Ana-Marija M., Peraica Maja, Ferenci? Zeljko, et al. Ochratoxin A-induced apoptosis in rat kidney tissue. Arhiv za higijenu rada i toksikologiju. 2004;55:243–248.

Hassen Wafa, Abid Salwa, Achour Abdellatif, Creppy Edmond, Bacha Hassen. Ochratoxin A and beta2-microglobulinuria in healthy individuals and in chronic interstitial nephropathy patients in the centre of Tunisia: a hot spot of Ochratoxin A exposure. Toxicology. 2004;199:185–193.

Robbiano Luigi, Baroni Debora, Carrozzino Roberto, Mereto Eugenio, Brambilla Giovanni. DNA damage and micronuclei induced in rat and human kidney cells by six chemicals carcinogenic to the rat kidney. Toxicology. 2004;204:187–195.

Hassen Wafa, Abid-Essafi Salwa, Achour Abdellatif, et al. Karyomegaly of tubular kidney cells in human chronic interstitial nephropathy in Tunisia: respective role of Ochratoxin A and possible genetic predisposition. Human & experimental toxicology. 2004;23:339–346.

Hsieh Ming-Fang F., Chiu Hsiao-Ying Y., Lin-Tan Dan-Tzu T., Lin Ja-Liang L.. Does human ochratoxin A aggravate proteinuria in patients with chronic renal disease? Renal failure. 2004;26:311–316.

Blank Ralf, Wolffram Siegfried. Alkalinization of urinary pH accelerates renal excretion of ochratoxin A in pigs. The Journal of nutrition. 2004;134:2355–2358.

Zhang Xiaohong, Groves Carlotta E., Bahn Andrew, et al. Relative contribution of OAT and OCT transporters to organic electrolyte transport in rabbit proximal tubule. American journal of physiology. Renal physiology. 2004;287.

Lock Edward A., Hard Gordon C.. Chemically induced renal tubule tumors in the laboratory rat and mouse: review of the NCI/NTP database and categorization of renal carcinogens based on mechanistic information. Critical reviews in toxicology. 2004;34:211–299.

Youngblood Geri L., Sweet Douglas H.. Identification and functional assessment of the novel murine organic anion transporter Oat5 (Slc22a19) expressed in kidney. American journal of physiology. Renal physiology. 2004;287.

Gennari Alessandra, Pazos Patricia, Boveri Monica, et al. New insights into the mechanisms involved in renal proximal tubular damage induced in vitro by ochratoxin A. Journal of biochemical and molecular toxicology. 2004;18:43–49.

Schwerdt Gerald, Freudinger Ruth, Schuster Claudia, Silbernagl Stefan, Gekle Michael. Inhibition of mitochondria and extracellular acidification enhance achratoxin A-induced apoptosis in renal collecting duct-derived MDCK-C7 cells. Cellular physiology and biochemistry : international journal of experimental cellular physiology, biochemistry, and pharmacology. 2004;14:47–56.

Aukema H. M., House J. D., Bankovic-Calic N., Ogborn M. R.. Increased renal fibrosis and expression of renal phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase-beta and phospholipase C (gamma1) proteins in piglets exposed to ochratoxin-A. Nephron. Physiology. 2004;96.

Froquet R., Le Dréan G., Parent-Massin D.. Effect of Ochratoxin A on human haematopoietic progenitors proliferation and differentiation: an in vitro study. Human & experimental toxicology. 2003;22:393–400.

Miljkovic Ana, Pfohl-Leszkowicz Annie, Dobrota Miloslav, Mantle Peter G.. Comparative extract of Penicillium polonicum in rats. Experimental and toxicologic pathology. 2003;54:305–312.

Weber F., Schwerdt G., Freudinger R., Gekle M.. Programmed cell death by interaction of ochratoxin A with other nephrotoxins. Mycotoxin research. 2003;19:20–23.

Abid Salwa, Hassen Wafa, Achour Abdellatif, et al. Ochratoxin A and human chronic nephropathy in Tunisia: is the situation endemic? Human & experimental toxicology. 2003;22:77–84.

Schwerdt Gerald, Freudinger Ruth, Schuster Claudia, Silbernagl Stefan, Gekle Michael. Inhibition of mitochondria prevents cell death in kidney epithelial cells by intra- and extracellular acidification. Kidney international. 2003;63:1725–1735.

Petrik József, Zani?-Grubisi? Tihana, Barisi? Karmela, et al. Apoptosis and oxidative stress induced by ochratoxin A in rat kidney. Archives of toxicology. 2003;77:685–693.

Luhe Anke, Hildebrand Heinz, Bach Ute, Dingermann Theodor, Ahr Hans-Jurgen J.. A new approach to studying ochratoxin A (OTA)-induced nephrotoxicity: expression profiling in vivo and in vitro employing cDNA microarrays. Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology. 2003;73:315–328.

Müller G., Burkert B., Rosner H., Köhler H.. Effects of the mycotoxin ochratoxin A and some of its metabolites on human kidney cell lines. Toxicology in vitro : an international journal published in association with BIBRA. 2003;17:441–448.

Sauvant C., Holzinger H., Gekle M.. Inhibition of the mitogen activated protein kinase ERK1/2 amplifies ochratoxin A toxicity in the proximal tubule of the kidney. Mycotoxin research. 2003;19:118–123.

Son Woo-Chan C., Kamino Kenji, Lee Yong-Soon S., Kang Kyung-Sun S.. Lack of effects of sodium 2-mercaptoethane sulfonate (mesna) on Ochratoxin A induced renal tumorigenicity following life-time oral administration of Ochratoxin A in DA and Lewis rats. Toxicology letters. 2003;142:19–27.

Aydin G., Ozçelik N., Ciçek E., Soyöz M.. Histopathologic changes in liver and renal tissues induced by Ochratoxin A and melatonin in rats. Human & experimental toxicology. 2003;22:383–391.

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Bahnemann E., Kerling H. P., Ensminger S., Schwerdt G., Silbernagl S., Gekle M.. Renal transepithelial secretion of ochratoxin A in the non-filtering toad kidney. Toxicology. 1997;120:11–17.

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Plestina R.. Nephrotoxicity of ochratoxin A. Food additives and contaminants. 1996;13 Suppl:49–50.

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Gekle M., Pollock C. A., Silbernagl S.. Time- and concentration-dependent biphasic effect of ochratoxin A on growth of proximal tubular cells in primary culture. The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics. 1995;275:397–404.

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Gekle M., Vogt R., Oberleithner H., Silbernagl S.. The mycotoxin ochratoxin A deranges pH homeostasis in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. The Journal of membrane biology. 1994;139:183–190.

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Gekle M., Oberleithner H., Silbernagl S.. Ochratoxin A impairs “postproximal” nephron function in vivo and blocks plasma membrane anion conductance in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells in vitro. Pflügers Archiv : European journal of physiology. 1993;425:401–408.

Gekle M., Silbernagl S.. Mechanism of ochratoxin A-induced reduction of glomerular filtration rate in rats. The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics. 1993;267:316–321.

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Boorman G. A., McDonald M. R., Imoto S., Persing R.. Renal lesions induced by ochratoxin A exposure in the F344 rat. Toxicologic pathology. 1992;20:236–245.

Braunberg R. C., Gantt O., Barton C., Friedman L.. In vitro effects of the nephrotoxins ochratoxin A and citrinin upon biochemical function of porcine kidney. Archives of environmental contamination and toxicology. 1992;22:464–470.

Chong X., Rahimtula A. D.. Alterations in ATP-dependent calcium uptake by rat renal cortex microsomes following ochratoxin A administration in vivo or addition in vitro. Biochemical pharmacology. 1992;44:1401–1409.

Rahimtula A. D., Chong X.. Alterations in calcium homeostasis as a possible cause of ochratoxin A nephrotoxicity. IARC scientific publications. 1991:207–214.

Mantle P. G., McHugh K. M., Adatia R., Gray T., Turner D. R.. Persistent karyomegaly caused by Penicillium nephrotoxins in the rat. Proceedings. Biological sciences / The Royal Society. 1991;246:251–259.

Dietrich D. R., Swenberg J. A.. Preneoplastic lesions in rodent kidney induced spontaneously or by non-genotoxic agents: predictive nature and comparison to lesions induced by genotoxic carcinogens. Mutation research. 1991;248:239–260.

Pepeljnjak S., Cepelak I., Jureti? D.. Effect of ochratoxin A on brush border enzymes of rat kidney. IARC scientific publications. 1991:273–277.

Rati E. R., Shantha T., Ramesh H. P.. Effect of long term feeding and withdrawal of aflatoxin B1 and ochratoxin A on kidney cell transformation in albino rats. Indian journal of experimental biology. 1991;29:813–817.

Aleo M. D., Wyatt R. D., Schnellmann R. G.. Mitochondrial dysfunction is an early event in ochratoxin A but not oosporein toxicity to rat renal proximal tubules. Toxicology and applied pharmacology. 1991;107:73–80.

Castegnaro M., Chernozemsky I. N., Hietanen E., Bartsch H.. Are mycotoxins risk factors for endemic nephropathy and associated urothelial cancers? Archiv für Geschwulstforschung. 1990;60:295–303.

Cvetni? Z., Pepeljnjak S.. Ochratoxinogenicity of Aspergillus ochraceus strains from nephropathic and non-nephropathic areas in Yugoslavia. Mycopathologia. 1990;110:93–99.

Glahn R. P., Shapiro R. S., Vena V. E., Wideman R. F., Huff W. E.. Effects of chronic ochratoxin A and citrinin toxicosis on kidney function of single comb White Leghorn pullets. Poultry science. 1989;68:1205–1212.

Jung K. Y., Endou H.. Nephrotoxicity assessment by measuring cellular ATP content. II. Intranephron site of ochratoxin A nephrotoxicity. Toxicology and applied pharmacology. 1989;100:383–390.

Thekkumkara T. J., Patel M. S.. Ochratoxin A decreases the activity of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and its mRNA content in primary cultures of rat kidney proximal convoluted tubule cells. Biochemical and biophysical research communications. 1989;162:916–920.

Krogh P., Gyrd-Hansen N., Hald B., et al. Renal enzyme activities in experimental ochratoxin A-induced porcine nephropathy: diagnostic potential of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activity. Journal of toxicology and environmental health. 1988;23:1–14.

Glahn R. P., Wideman R. F., Evangelisti J. W., Huff W. E.. Effects of ochratoxin A alone and in combination with citrinin on kidney function of single comb White Leghorn pullets. Poultry science. 1988;67:1034–1042.

Meisner H., Cimbala M.. Effect of ochratoxin A on gene expression in rat kidneys. Developments in toxicology and environmental science. 1986;12:261–271.

Brown T. P., Manning R. O., Fletcher O. J., Wyatt R. D.. The individual and combined effects of citrinin and ochratoxin A on renal ultrastructure in layer chicks. Avian diseases. 1986;30:191–198.

Kane A., Creppy E. E., Roth A., Röschenthaler R., Dirheimer G.. Distribution of the [3H]- label from low doses of radioactive ochratoxin A ingested by rats, and evidence for DNA single-strand breaks caused in liver and kidneys. Archives of toxicology. 1986;58:219–224.

Kane A., Creppy E. E., Röschenthaler R., Dirheimer G.. Biological changes in kidney of rats fed subchronically with low doses of ochratoxin A. Developments in toxicology and environmental science. 1986;14:241–250.

Kane A., Creppy E. E., Röschenthaler R., Dirheimer G.. Changes in urinary and renal tubular enzymes caused by subchronic administration of ochratoxin A in rats. Toxicology. 1986;42:233–243.

Elling F., Nielsen J. P., Lillehøj E. B., Thomassen M. S., Størmer F. C.. Ochratoxin Ainduced porcine nephropathy: enzyme and ultrastructure changes after short-term exposure. Toxicon. 1985;23:247–254.

Stein A. F., Phillips T. D., Kubena L. F., Harvey R. B.. Renal tubular secretion and reabsorption as factors in ochratoxicosis: effects of probenecid on nephrotoxicity. Journal of toxicology and environmental health. 1985;16:593–605.

Creppy E. E., Kane A., Dirheimer G., Lafarge-Frayssinet C., Mousset S., Frayssinet C. Genotoxicity of ochratoxin A in mice: DNA single-strand break evaluation in spleen, liver and kidney. Toxicology letters. 1985;28:29–35.

Creppy E. E., Kane A., Dirheimer G., Lafarge-Frayssinet C., Mousset S., Frayssinet C.. [DNA damage in the spleen, liver and kidneys of mice treated with ochratoxin A]. Comptes rendus des séances de la Société de biologie et de ses filiales. 1985;179:688–695.

Ngaha E. O.. Biochemical changes in the rat during experimentally induced acute ochratoxicosis. Enzyme. 1985;33:1–8.

Stein A. F., Geerling S., Mollenhauer H. H., Kubena L. F., Heidelbaugh N. D., Phillips T. D.. Effects of ochratoxin A in the partially nephrectomized rat. Journal of toxicology and environmental health. 1984;14:535–550.

Goli?ski P., Hult K., Grabarkiewicz-Szczesna J., Che?kowski J., Kneblewski P., Szebiotko K.. Mycotoxic porcine nephropathy and spontaneous occurrence of ochratoxin A residues in kidneys and blood of Polish swine. Applied and environmental microbiology. 1984;47:1210–1212.

Mayura K., Stein A. F., Berndt W. O., Phillips T. D.. Teratogenic effects of Ochratoxin A in rats with impaired renal function. Toxicology. 1984;32:277–285.

Meisner H., Meisner P.. Ochratoxin A, an in vivo inhibitor of renal phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. Archives of biochemistry and biophysics. 1981;208:146–153.

Berndt W. O., Hayes A. W., Phillips R. D.. Effects of mycotoxins on renal function: mycotoxic nephropathy. Kidney international. 1980;18:656–664.

Gupta M., Bandyopadhyay S., Paul B., Mazumdar S. K.. Histochemical determination of adrenal steroidogenesis in rat after treatment with ochratoxin A. Endokrinologie. 1980;75:369–372.

Berndt W. O., Hayes A. W.. In vivo and in vitro changes in renal function caused by ochratoxin A in the rat. Toxicology. 1979;12:5–17.

Meisner H., Selanik P.. Inhibition of renal gluconeogenesis in rats by ochratoxin. The Biochemical journal. 1979;180:681–684.

Krogh P., Elling F., Friis C., et al. Porcine nephropathy induced by long-term ingestion of ochratoxin A. Veterinary pathology. 1979;16:466–475.

Elling F.. Ochratoxin A-induced mycotoxic porcine nephropathy: alterations in enzyme activity in tubular cells. Acta pathologica et microbiologica Scandinavica. Section A, Pathology. 1979;87A:237–243.

Krogh P.. Casual associations of mycotoxic nephropathy. Acta pathologica et microbiologica Scandinavica. Supplement. 1978:1–28.

Rutqvist L., Björklund N. E., Hult K., Hökby E., Carlsson B.. Ochratoxin A as the cause of spontaneous nephropathy in fattening pigs. Applied and environmental microbiology. 1978;36:920–925.

Kitchen D. N., Carlton W. W., Tuite J.. Ochratoxin A and citrinin induced nephrosis in Beagle dogs. I. Clinical and clinicopathological features. Veterinary pathology. 1977;14:154–172.

Krogh P.. Ochratoxin A residues in tissues of slaughter pigs with nephropathy. Nordisk veterinaermedicin. 1977;29:402–405.

Kitchen D. N., Carlton W. W., Tuite J.. Ochratoxin A and citrinin induced nephrosis in Beagle dogs. II. Pathology. Veterinary pathology. 1977;14:261–272.

Kitchen D. N., Carlton W. W., Hinsman E. J.. Ochratoxin A and citrinin induced nephrosis in Beagle dogs. III. Terminal renal ultrastructural alterations. Veterinary pathology. 1977;14:392–406.

Krogh P., Elling F., Gyrd-Hansen N., et al. Experimental porcine nephropathy: changes of renal function and structure perorally induced by crystalline ochratoxin A. Acta pathologica et microbiologica Scandinavica. Section A, Pathology. 1976;84:429–434.

Suzuki S., Kozuka Y., Satoh T., Yamazaki M.. Studies on the nephrotoxicity of ochratoxin A in rats. Toxicology and applied pharmacology. 1975;34:479–490.

Steyn P. S., Vleggaar R., Du Preez N. P., Blyth A. A., Seegers J. C.. The in vitro toxicity of analogs of ochratoxin A in monkey kidney epithelial cells. Toxicology and applied pharmacology. 1975;32:198–203.

Szczech G. M., Carlton W. W., Hinsman E. J.. Ochratoxicosis in Beagle dogs. III. Terminal renal ultrastructural alterations. Veterinary pathology. 1974;11:385–406.

Krogh P., Axelsen N. H., Elling F., et al. Experimental porcine nephropathy. Changes of renal function and structure induced by ochratoxin A- contaminated feed. Acta pathologica et microbiologica Scandinavica. Supplement. 1974;0:1–21.

Elling F., Moller T.. Mycotoxic nephropathy in pigs. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 1973;49:411–418.

__Balkan Endemic Nephropathy

Mantle Peter, Modalca Mirela, Nicholls Andrew, Tatu Calin, Tatu Diana, Toncheva Draga. Comparative (1)H NMR metabolomic urinalysis of people diagnosed with Balkan endemic nephropathy, and healthy subjects, in Romania and Bulgaria: a pilot study. Toxins. 2011;3:815–833.

Yordanova Pavlina, Wilfried Karmaus, Tsolova Svetla, Dimitrov Plamen. Ochratoxin A and ?2-microglobulin in BEN patients and controls. Toxins. 2010;2:780–792.

Stefanovi? Vladisav, Polenakovi? Momir. Fifty years of research in Balkan endemic nephropathy: where are we now? Nephron. Clinical practice. 2009;112.

Schiller Adalbert, Gusbeth-Tatomir Paul, Pavlovic Nikola, Ferluga Dusan, Spasovski Goce, Covic Adrian. Balkan endemic nephropathy: a still unsolved puzzle. Journal of nephrology. 2008;21:673–680.

Long David T., Voice Thomas C.. Role of exposure analysis in solving the mystery of Balkan endemic nephropathy. Croatian medical journal. 2007;48:300–311.

Grollman Arthur P., Jelakovi? Bojan. Role of environmental toxins in endemic (Balkan) nephropathy. October 2006, Zagreb, Croatia. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN. 2007;18:2817–2823.

Stefanovic Vladisav, Toncheva Draga, Atanasova Srebrena, Polenakovic Momir. Etiology of Balkan endemic nephropathy and associated urothelial cancer. American journal of nephrology. 2006;26:1–11.

Castegnaro Marcel, Canadas Delphine, Vrabcheva Terry, Petkova-Bocharova Theodora, Chernozemsky Ivan N., Pfohl-Leszkowicz Annie. Balkan endemic nephropathy: role of ochratoxins A through biomarkers. Molecular nutrition & food research. 2006;50:519–529.

Vrabcheva Terry, Petkova-Bocharova Theodora, Grosso Frederic, et al. Analysis of ochratoxin A in foods consumed by inhabitants from an area with balkan endemic nephropathy: a 1 month follow-up study. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry. 2004;52:2404–2410.

Grosso F., Saíd S., Mabrouk I., et al. New data on the occurrence of ochratoxin A in human sera from patients affected or not by renal diseases in Tunisia. Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association. 2003;41:1133–1140.

Stoev S. D.. The role of ochratoxin A as a possible cause of Balkan endemic nephropathy and its risk evaluation. Veterinary and human toxicology. 1998;40:352–360.

Tatu C. A., Orem W. H., Finkelman R. B., Feder G. L.. The etiology of Balkan endemic nephropathy: still more questions than answers. Environmental health perspectives. 1998;106:689–700.

Radi? B., Fuchs R., Peraica M., Luci? A.. Ochratoxin A in human sera in the area with endemic nephropathy in Croatia. Toxicology letters. 1997;91:105–109.

Petkova-Bocharova T., Castegnaro M.. Ochratoxin A in human blood in relation to Balkan endemic nephropathy and urinary tract tumours in Bulgaria. IARC scientific publications. 1991:135–137.

Castegnaro M., Maru V., Petkova-Bocharova T., Nikolov I., Bartsch H.. Concentrations of ochratoxin A in the urine of endemic nephropathy patients and controls in Bulgaria: lack of detection of 4-hydroxyochratoxin A. IARC scientific publications. 1991:165–169.

Petkova-Bocharova T., Castegnaro M., Michelon J., Maru V.. Ochratoxin A and other mycotoxins in cereals from an area of Balkan endemic nephropathy and urinary tract tumours in Bulgaria. IARC scientific publications. 1991:83–87.

Manolov G., Manolova Y., Castegnaro M., Chernozemsky I. N.. Chromosomal alterations in lymphocytes of patients with Balkan endemic nephropathy and of healthy individuals after incubation in vitro with ochratoxin A. IARC scientific publications. 1991:267–272.

Ceovi? S., Plestina R., Mileti?-Medved M., Stavljeni? A., Mitar J., Vukeli? M.. Epidemiological aspects of Balkan endemic nephropathy in a typical focus in Yugoslavia. IARC scientific publications. 1991:5–10.

Bach P. H.. A molecular basis for target-cell toxicity and upper urothelial carcinoma in analgesic abusers and patients with Balkan endemic nephropathy. IARC scientific publications. 1991:215–227.

Plestina R., Ceovi? S., Gatenbeck S., et al. Human exposure to ochratoxin A in areas of Yugoslavia with endemic nephropathy. Journal of environmental pathology, toxicology and oncology. 1990;10:145–148.

Nikolov I. G., Chernozemsky I. N.. Balkan endemic nephropathy and transitional cell carcinoma: two fatal chronic diseases and the environment. Journal of environmental pathology, toxicology and oncology. 1990;10:317–320.

Manolova Y., Manolov G., Parvanova L., Petkova-Bocharova T., Castegnaro M., Chernozemsky I. N.. Induction of characteristic chromosomal aberrations, particularly Xtrisomy, in cultured human lymphocytes treated by ochratoxin A, a mycotoxin implicated in Balkan endemic nephropathy. Mutation research. 1990;231:143–149.

Radovanovic Z.. Aetiology of Balkan nephropathy: a reappraisal after 30 years. European journal of epidemiology. 1989;5:372–377.

Petkova-Bocharova T., Chernozemsky I. N., Castegnaro M.. Ochratoxin A in human blood in relation to Balkan endemic nephropathy and urinary system tumours in Bulgaria. Food additives and contaminants. 1988;5:299–301.

Pepeljnjak S., Cvetni? Z.. The mycotoxicological chain and contamination of food by ochratoxin A in the nephropathic and non-nephropathic areas in Yugoslavia. Mycopathologia. 1985;90:147–153.

Pavlovi? M., Plestina R., Krogh P.. Ochratoxin A contamination of foodstuffs in an area with Balkan (endemic) nephropathy. Acta pathologica et microbiologica Scandinavica. Section B, Microbiology. 1979;87:243–246.

Krogh P., Hald B., Plestina R., Ceovi? S.. Balkan (endemic) nephropathy and foodborn ochratoxin A: preliminary results of a survey of foodstuffs. Acta pathologica et microbiologica Scandinavica. Section B, Microbiology. 1977;85:238–240.

Elling F., Krogh P.. Fungal toxins and Balkan (endemic) nephropathy. Lancet. 1977;1.

__Effects on Offspring

Hsuuw Yan-Der D., Chan Wen-Hsiung H., Yu Jau-Song S.. Ochratoxin a inhibits mouse embryonic development by activating a mitochondrion-dependent apoptotic signaling pathway. International journal of molecular sciences. 2013;14:935–953.

Minervini Fiorenza, Giannoccaro Alessandra, Nicassio Michele, Panzarini Giuseppe, Lacalandra Giovanni Michele M.. First evidence of placental transfer of ochratoxin A in horses. Toxins. 2013;5:84–92.

Klapec T., Sarkanj B., Banjari I., Strelec I.. Urinary ochratoxin A and ochratoxin alpha in pregnant women. Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association. 2012;50:4487–4492.

Woo Chit Shing Jackson S., Partanen Heidi, Myllynen Päivi, Vähäkangas Kirsi, El-Nezami Hani. Fate of the teratogenic and carcinogenic ochratoxin A in human perfused placenta. Toxicology letters. 2012;208:92–99.

Hassan Zahoor, Khan Muhammad Zargham Z., Saleemi Muhammad Kashif K., Khan Ahrar, Javed Ijaz, Bhatti Sheraz Ahmed A.. Toxico-pathological effects of in ovo inoculation of ochratoxin A (OTA) in chick embryos and subsequently in hatched chicks. Toxicologic pathology. 2012;40:33–39.

Zahoor-Ul-Hassan , Khan Muhammad Zargham Z., Khan Ahrar, Javed Ijaz, Saleemi Muhammad Kashif K.. Immunological status of the progeny of breeder hens kept on ochratoxin A (OTA)-contaminated feed. Journal of immunotoxicology. 2011;8:122–130.

Ueta Etsuko, Kodama Mami, Sumino Yoshiki, et al. Gender-dependent differences in the incidence of ochratoxin A-induced neural tube defects in the Pdn/Pdn mouse. Congenital anomalies. 2010;50:29–39.

Wilk-Zasadna Iwona, Minta Maria. Developmental toxicity of ochratoxin a in rat embryo midbrain micromass cultures. International journal of molecular sciences. 2009;10:37–49.

Katagiri Ryu-ichi, Kurome Maho, Teshima Yuko, Ueta Etsuko, Naruse Ichiro. Prevention of ochratoxin A-induced neural tube defects by folic acid in the genetic polydactyly/arhinencephaly mouse, Pdn/Pdn. Congenital anomalies. 2007;47:90–96.

Ohta Ken-ichi, Maekawa Mizuho, Katagiri Ryu-ichi, Ueta Etsuko, Naruse Ichiro. Genetic susceptibility in the neural tube defects induced by ochratoxin A in the genetic arhinencephaly mouse, Pdn/Pdn. Congenital anomalies. 2006;46:144–148.

Patil Rajendra D., Dwivedi Prabhaker, Sharma Anil K.. Critical period and minimum single oral dose of ochratoxin A for inducing developmental toxicity in pregnant Wistar rats. Reproductive toxicology (Elmsford, N.Y.). 2006;22:679–687.

O?Brien E., Prietz A., Dietrich Daniel R.. Investigation of the teratogenic potential of ochratoxin A and B using the FETAX system. Birth defects research. Part B, Developmental and reproductive toxicology. 2005;74:417–423.

Wangikar P. B., Dwivedi P., Sinha Neeraj, Sharma A. K., Telang A. G.. Teratogenic effects in rabbits of simultaneous exposure to ochratoxin A and aflatoxin B1 with special reference to microscopic effects. Toxicology. 2005;215:37–47.

Wangikar P. B., Dwivedi P., Sharma A. K., Sinha Neeraj. Effect in rats of simultaneous prenatal exposure to ochratoxin A and aflatoxin B1. II. Histopathological features of teratological anomalies induced in fetuses. Birth defects research. Part B, Developmental and reproductive toxicology. 2004;71:352–358.

Wangikar P. B., Dwivedi P., Sinha Neeraj. Effect in rats of simultaneous prenatal exposure to ochratoxin A and aflatoxin B1. I. Maternal toxicity and fetal malformations. Birth defects research. Part B, Developmental and reproductive toxicology. 2004;71:343–351.

Hong Jin Tae T., Lee Myung Koo K., Park Ki Sook S., et al. Inhibitory effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonist on ochratoxin A-induced cytotoxicity and activation of transcription factors in cultured rat embryonic midbrain cells. Journal of toxicology and environmental health. Part A. 2002;65:407–418.

Hong J. T., Park K. L., Han S. Y., et al. Effects of ochratoxin A on cytotoxicity and cell differentiation in cultured rat embryonic cells. Journal of toxicology and environmental health. Part A. 2000;61:609–621.

Dopp E., Müller J., Hahnel C., Schiffmann D.. Induction of genotoxic effects and modulation of the intracellular calcium level in syrian hamster embryo (SHE) fibroblasts caused by ochratoxin A. Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association. 1999;37:713–721.

Hallén I. P., Breitholtz-Emanuelsson A., Hult K., Olsen M., Oskarsson A.. Placental and lactational transfer of ochratoxin A in rats. Natural toxins. 1998;6:43–49.

Petkova-Bocharova T., Stoichev I. I., Chernozemsky I. N., Castegnaro M., Pfohl-Leszkowicz A.. Formation of DNA adducts in tissues of mouse progeny through transplacental contamination and/or lactation after administration of a single dose of ochratoxin A to the pregnant mother. Environmental and molecular mutagenesis. 1998;32:155–162.

Thuvander A., Breitholtz-Emanuelsson A., Brabencova D., Gadhasson I.. Prenatal exposure of Balb/c mice to ochratoxin A: effects on the immune system in the offspring. Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association. 1996;34:547–554.

Thuvander A., Funseth E., Breitholtz-Emanuelsson A., Hallén I. P., Oskarsson A.. Effects of ochratoxin A on the rat immune system after perinatal exposure. Natural toxins. 1996;4:141–147.

Thuvander A., Dahl P., Breitholtz-Emanuelsson A.. Influence of perinatal ochratoxin A exposure on the immune system in mice. Natural toxins. 1996;4:174–180.

Wei X., Sulik K. K.. Pathogenesis of caudal dysgenesis/sirenomelia induced by ochratoxin A in chick embryos. Teratology. 1996;53:378–391.

Edrington T. S., Harvey R. B., Kubena L. F.. Toxic effects of aflatoxin B1 and ochratoxin A, alone and in combination, on chicken embryos. Bulletin of environmental contamination and toxicology. 1995;54:331–336.

Jonsyn F. E., Maxwell S. M., Hendrickse R. G.. Human fetal exposure to ochratoxin A and aflatoxins. Annals of tropical paediatrics. 1995;15:3–9.

Miki T., Fukui Y., Takeuchi Y., Itoh M.. A quantitative study of the effects of prenatal Xirradiation on the development of cerebral cortex in rats. Neuroscience research. 1995;23:241–247.

Shirai S.. [Developmental mechanisms of congenital eye abnormalities]. Nippon Ganka Gakkai zasshi. 1991;95:1206–1237.

Mayura K., Edwards J. F., Maull E. A., Phillips T. D.. The effects of ochratoxin A on postimplantation rat embryos in culture. Archives of environmental contamination and toxicology. 1989;18:411–415.

Wiger R., Størmer F. C.. Effects of ochratoxins A and B on prechondrogenic mesenchymal cells from chick embryo limb buds. Toxicology letters. 1990;54:129–134.

Ohshika S., Shirai S., Majima A.. [Developmental abnormalities of the optic disc induced in mouse fetuses by ochratoxin A]. Nippon Ganka Gakkai zasshi. 1988;92:414–422.

Tamaru M., Hirata Y., Matsutani T.. Neurochemical effects of prenatal treatment with ochratoxin A on fetal and adult mouse brain. Neurochemical research. 1988;13:1139–1147.

Harvey R. B., Kubena L. F., Naqi S. A., et al. Immunologic effects of low levels of ochratoxin A in ovo: utilization of a chicken embryo model. Avian diseases. 1987;31:787–791.

Fukui Y., Hoshino K., Kameyama Y., Yasui T., Toda C., Nagano H.. Placental transfer of ochratoxin A and its cytotoxic effect on the mouse embryonic brain. Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association. 1987;25:17–24.

Fukui Y., Hoshino K., Kameyama Y.. Developmental abnormalities of mouse cerebellum induced by intracisternal injection of ochratoxin A in neonatal period. Experimental neurology. 1987;98:54–66.

Shirai S., Ohshika S., Majima A.. [Developmental abnormalities of the anterior segment of the eye induced in mice by ochratoxin A]. Nippon Ganka Gakkai zasshi. 1985;89:753–760.

Katayama S., Matsumoto N.. Toxic effects of chemicals on mouse post-blastocyst development–a trial to establish a testing system for embryotoxicity. Nihon Sanka Fujinka Gakkai zasshi. 1985;37:421–430.

Singh J., Hood R. D.. Maternal protein deprivation enhances the teratogenicity of ochratoxin A in mice. Teratology. 1985;32:381–388.

Shirai S., Ohshika S., Yuguchi S., Majima A.. [Developmental eye abnormalities in mouse fetuses induced by ochratoxin A]. Nippon Ganka Gakkai zasshi. 1984;88:627–634.

Mayura K., Parker R., Berndt W. O., Phillips T. D.. Effect of simultaneous prenatal exposure to ochratoxin A and citrinin in the rat. Journal of toxicology and environmental health. 1984;13:553–561.

Mayura K., Parker R., Berndt W. O., Phillips T. D.. Ochratoxin A-induced teratogenesis in rats: partial protection by phenylalanine. Applied and environmental microbiology. 1984;48:1186–1188.

Mayura K., Hayes A. W., Berndt W. O.. Effects of dietary protein on teratogenicity of ochratoxin A in rats. Toxicology. 1983;27:147–157.

Poppe S. M., Stuckhardt J. L., Szczech G. M.. Postnatal behavioral effects of ochratoxin A in offspring of treated mice. Teratology. 1983;27:293–300.

Mayura K., Reddy R. V., Hayes A. W., Berndt W. O.. Embryocidal, fetotoxic and teratogenic effects of ochratoxin A in rats. Toxicology. 1982;25:175–185.

Szczech G. M., Hood R. D.. Brain necrosis in mouse fetuses transplacentally exposed to the mycotoxin ochratoxin A. Toxicology and applied pharmacology. 1981;57:127–137.

Siraj M. Y., Phillips T. D., Hayes A. W.. Effects of the mycotoxins citrinin and ochratoxin a on hepatic mixed-function oxidase and adenosinetriphosphatase in neonatal rats. Journal of toxicology and environmental health. 1981;8:131–140.

Gupta M., Bandyopadhyay S., Paul B., Mazumdar S. K.. Ovarian steroidogenesis and development of fetuses following ochratoxin A treatment in pregnant rats. Endokrinologie. 1981;77:152–160.

Arora R. G., Frölén H.. Interference of mycotoxins with prenatal development of the mouse. II. Ochratoxin A induced teratogenic effects in relation to the dose and stage of gestation. Acta veterinaria Scandinavica. 1981;22:535–552.

Arora R. G., Frölén H., Nilsson A.. Interference of mycotoxins with prenatal development of the mouse. I. Influence of aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A and zearalenone. Acta veterinaria Scandinavica. 1981;22:524–534.

Hood R. D., Kuczuk M. H., Szczech G. M.. Effects in mice of simultaneous prenatal exposure to ochratoxin A and T-2 toxin. Teratology. 1978;17:25–29.

Moré J., Galtier P., Alvinerie M.. [Toxicity of ochratoxin A. 3. Effects during the initial stages of pregnancy in the rat]. Annales de recherches vétérinaires. Annals of veterinary research. 1978;9:169–173.

Szczech G. M., Hood R. D.. Animal model of human disease: alimentary toxic aleukia, fetal brain necrosis, and renal tubular necrosis. The American journal of pathology. 1978;91:689–692.

Shreeve B. J., Patterson D. S., Pepin G. A., Roberts B. A., Wrathall A. E.. Effect of feeding ochratoxin to pigs during early pregnancy. The British veterinary journal. 1977;133:412–417.

Brown M. H., Szczech G. M., Purmalis B. P.. Teratogenic and toxic effects of ochratoxin A in rats. Toxicology and applied pharmacology. 1976;37:331–338.

Patterson D. S., Roberts B. A., Small B. J.. Metabolism of ochratoxins A and B in the pig during early pregnancy and the accumulation in body tissues of ochratoxin A only. Food and cosmetics toxicology. 1976;14:439–442.

Hayes A. W., Hood R. D., Lee H. L.. Teratogenic effects of ochratoxin A in mice. Teratology. 1974;9:93–97.

Still P. E., Macklin A. W., Ribelin W. E., Smalley E. B.. Relationship of ochratoxin A to foetal death in laboratory and domestic animals. Nature. 1971;234:563–564.

__Presence in Milk

Biasucci G., Calabrese G., Di Giuseppe R., et al. The presence of ochratoxin A in cord serum and in human milk and its correspondence with maternal dietary habits. European journal of nutrition. 2011;50:211–218.

Meucci V., Razzuoli E., Soldani G., Massart F.. Mycotoxin detection in infant formula milks in Italy. Food additives & contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, analysis, control, exposure & risk assessment. 2010;27:64–71.

Gürbay A., Girgin G., Sabuncuo?lu S. Atasayar, et al. Ochratoxin A: is it present in breast milk samples obtained from mothers from Ankara, Turkey? Journal of applied toxicology : JAT. 2010;30:329–333.

Galvano Fabio, Pietri Amedeo, Bertuzzi Terenzio, et al. Maternal dietary habits and mycotoxin occurrence in human mature milk. Molecular nutrition & food research. 2008;52:496–501.

Dostal A., Jakusova L., Cajdova J., Hudeckova H.. Results of the first studies of occurence of ochratoxin A in human milk in Slovakia. Bratislavské lekárske listy. 2008;109:276–278.

Postupolski Jacek, Kar?owski Kazimierz, Kubik Pawe?. Ochratoxin a in maternal and foetal blood and in maternal milk. Roczniki Pa?stwowego Zak?adu Higieny. 2006;57:23–30.

Hassan Ahmed M., Sheashaa Hussein A., Fattah Mohamed Abdel F., Ibrahim Alla Z., Gaber Osama A., Sobh Mohamed A.. Study of ochratoxin A as an environmental risk that causes renal injury in breast-fed Egyptian infants. Pediatric nephrology (Berlin, Germany). 2006;21:102–105.

Turconi Giovanna, Guarcello Marianna, Livieri Chiara, et al. Evaluation of xenobiotics in human milk and ingestion by the newborn–an epidemiological survey in Lombardy (Northern Italy). European journal of nutrition. 2004;43:191–197.

Skaug M. A., Helland I., Solvoll K., Saugstad O. D.. Presence of ochratoxin A in human milk in relation to dietary intake. Food additives and contaminants. 2001;18:321–327. Ferrufino-Guardia E. V., Tangni E. K., Larondelle Y., Ponchaut S.. Transfer of ochratoxin A during lactation: exposure of suckling via the milk of rabbit does fed a naturally-contaminated feed. Food additives and contaminants. 2000;17:167–175.

Skaug M. A.. Analysis of Norwegian milk and infant formulas for ochratoxin A. Food additives and contaminants. 1999;16:75–78.

Skaug M. A., Størmer F. C., Saugstad O. D.. Ochratoxin A: a naturally occurring mycotoxin found in human milk samples from Norway. Acta paediatrica (Oslo, Norway : 1992). 1998;87:1275–1278.

Valenta H., Goll M.. Determination of ochratoxin A in regional samples of cow?s milk from Germany. Food additives and contaminants. 1996;13:669–676.

Miraglia M., Dominicis A., Brera C., et al. Ochratoxin A levels in human milk and related food samples: an exposure assessment. Natural toxins. 1995;3:436–444.

Jonsyn F. E., Maxwell S. M., Hendrickse R. G.. Ochratoxin A and aflatoxins in breast milk samples from Sierra Leone. Mycopathologia. 1995;131:121–126.

Micco C., Miraglia M., Brera C., Corneli S., Ambruzzi A.. Evaluation of ochratoxin A level in human milk in Italy. Food additives and contaminants. 1995;12:351–354.

Breitholtz-Emanuelsson A., Olsen M., Oskarsson A., Palminger I., Hult K.. Ochratoxin A in cow?s milk and in human milk with corresponding human blood samples. Journal of AOAC International. 1993;76:842–846.

Breitholtz-Emanuelsson A., Palminger-Hallén I., Wohlin P. O., Oskarsson A., Hult K., Olsen M.. Transfer of ochratoxin A from lactating rats to their offspring: a short-term study. Natural toxins. 1993;1:347–352.

Micco C., Ambruzzi M. A., Miraglia M., Brera C., Onori R., Benelli L.. Contamination of human milk with ochratoxin A. IARC scientific publications. 1991:105–108.

Gareis M., Märtlbauer E., Bauer J., Gedek B.. [Determination of ochratoxin A in human milk]. Zeitschrift für Lebensmittel-Untersuchung und -Forschung. 1988;186:114–117.

__Effects on Liver

Matsuda Yasunobu, Wakai Toshifumi, Kubota Masayuki, Osawa Mami, Sanpei Ayumi, Fujimaki Shun. Mycotoxins are conventional and novel risk biomarkers for hepatocellular carcinoma. World journal of gastroenterology : WJG. 2013;19:2587–2590.

Essid Ebtisam, Dernawi Yousef, Petzinger Ernst. Apoptosis induction by OTA and TNF-? in cultured primary rat hepatocytes and prevention by silibinin. Toxins. 2012;4:1139–1156.

Ayed-Boussema Imen, Pascussi Jean Marc M., Zaied Chiraz, Maurel Patrick, Bacha Hassen, Hassen Wafa. Ochratoxin A induces CYP3A4, 2B6, 3A5, 2C9, 1A1, and CYP1A2 gene expression in primary cultured human hepatocytes: a possible activation of nuclear receptors. Drug and chemical toxicology. 2012;35:71–80.

Corcuera L. A., Arbillaga L., Vettorazzi A., Azqueta A., Cerain A.. Ochratoxin A reduces aflatoxin B1 induced DNA damage detected by the comet assay in Hep G2 cells. Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association. 2011;49:2883–2889.

Chopra Martin, Link Pascal, Michels Christine, Schrenk Dieter. Characterization of ochratoxin A-induced apoptosis in primary rat hepatocytes. Cell biology and toxicology. 2010;26:239–254.

Al-Anati Lauy, Essid Ebtisam, Stenius Ulla, Beuerlein Knut, Schuh Klaus, Petzinger Ernst. Differential cell sensitivity between OTA and LPS upon releasing TNF-?. Toxins. 2010;2:1279–1299.

El Golli Bennour Emna, Rodriguez-Enfedaque Aïda, Bouaziz Chayma, Ladjimi Moncef, Renaud Flore, Bacha Hassen. Toxicities induced in cultured human hepatocarcinoma cells exposed to ochratoxin A: oxidative stress and apoptosis status. Journal of biochemical and molecular toxicology. 2009;23:87–96.

El Golli Bennour Emna, Bouaziz Chayma, Ladjimi Moncef, Renaud Flore, Bacha Hassen. Comparative mechanisms of zearalenone and ochratoxin A toxicities on cultured HepG2 cells: is oxidative stress a common process? Environmental toxicology. 2009;24:538–548.

Bouaziz Chayma, Sharaf El Dein Ossama, El Golli Emna, et al. Different apoptotic pathways induced by zearalenone, T-2 toxin and ochratoxin A in human hepatoma cells. Toxicology. 2008;254:19–28.

Hundhausen Christoph, Boesch-Saadatmandi Christine, Matzner Nicole, et al. Ochratoxin a lowers mRNA levels of genes encoding for key proteins of liver cell metabolism. Cancer genomics & proteomics. 2008;5:319–332.

Iwakiri Tomomi, Okumura Manabu, Matsunaga Naoya, et al. Hepatocyte growth factor increases uptake of estradiol 17beta-D-glucuronide and Oatp1 protein level in rat hepatocytes. European journal of pharmacology. 2008;580:19–26.

Gagliano Nicoletta, Donne Isabella Dalle D., Torri Carlo, et al. Early cytotoxic effects of ochratoxin A in rat liver: a morphological, biochemical and molecular study. Toxicology. 2006;225:214–224.

Guerra M. C., Galvano F., Bonsi L., et al. Cyanidin-3-O-beta-glucopyranoside, a natural free-radical scavenger against aflatoxin B1- and ochratoxin A-induced cell damage in a human hepatoma cell line (Hep G2) and a human colonic adenocarcinoma cell line (CaCo-2). The British journal of nutrition. 2005;94:211–220.

Al-Anati L., Katz N., Petzinger E.. Interference of arachidonic acid and its metabolites with TNF-alpha release by ochratoxin A from rat liver. Toxicology. 2005;208:335–346. Al-Anati L., Reinehr R., Van Rooijen N., Petzinger E.. In vitro induction of tumor necrosis

factor-? by ochratoxin A (OTA) from rat liver: role of Kupffer cells. Mycotoxin research. 2005;21:172–175.

Renzulli C., Galvano F., Pierdomenico L., Speroni E., Guerra M. C.. Effects of rosmarinic acid against aflatoxin B1 and ochratoxin-A-induced cell damage in a human hepatoma cell line (Hep G2). Journal of applied toxicology : JAT. 2004;24:289–296.

Knasmüller Siegfried, Cavin Christophe, Chakraborty Asima, et al. Structurally related mycotoxins ochratoxin A, ochratoxin B, and citrinin differ in their genotoxic activities and in their mode of action in human-derived liver (HepG2) cells: implications for risk assessment. Nutrition and cancer. 2004;50:190–197.

Ehrlich V., Darroudi F., Uhl M., et al. Genotoxic effects of ochratoxin A in human-derived hepatoma (HepG2) cells. Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association. 2002;40:1085–1090.

Gross-Steinmeyer Kerstin, Weymann Jürgen, Hege Hans-Günter G., Metzler Manfred. Metabolism and lack of DNA reactivity of the mycotoxin ochratoxin a in cultured rat and human primary hepatocytes. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry. 2002;50:938–945.

Weidenbach A., Schuh K., Failing K., Petzinger E.. Ochratoxin A induced TNF? release from the isolated and blood- free perfused rat liver. Mycotoxin research. 2000;16 Suppl 2:189–193.

Dörrenhaus A., Föllmann W.. Effects of ochratoxin A on DNA repair in cultures of rat hepatocytes and porcine urinary bladder epithelial cells. Archives of toxicology. 1997;71:709–713.

Schlosberg A., Elkin N., Malkinson M., et al. Severe hepatopathy in geese and broilers associated with ochratoxin in their feed. Mycopathologia. 1997;138:71–76.

Kontaxi M., Echkardt U., Hagenbuch B., Stieger B., Meier P. J., Petzinger E.. Uptake of the mycotoxin ochratoxin A in liver cells occurs via the cloned organic anion transporting polypeptide. The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics. 1996;279:1507–1513.

Omar R. F., Rahimtula A. D.. Possible role of an iron-oxygen complex in 4(S)-4-hydroxyochratoxin a formation by rat liver microsomes. Biochemical pharmacology. 1993;46:2073–2081.

Creppy E. E., Chakor K., Fisher M. J., Dirheimer G.. The mycotoxin ochratoxin A is a substrate for phenylalanine hydroxylase in isolated rat hepatocytes and in vivo. Archives of toxicology. 1990;64:279–284.

Khan S., Martin M., Bartsch H., Rahimtula A. D.. Perturbation of liver microsomal calcium homeostasis by ochratoxin A. Biochemical pharmacology. 1989;38:67–72.

Roth A., Creppy E. E., Kane A., et al. Influence of ochratoxin B on the ochratoxin A inhibition of phenylalanyl-tRNA formation in vitro and protein synthesis in hepatoma tissue culture cells. Toxicology letters. 1989;45:307–313.

Wei Y. H., Lu C. Y., Lin T. N., Wei R. D.. Effect of ochratoxin A on rat liver mitochondrial respiration and oxidative phosphorylation. Toxicology. 1985;36:119–130.

Galtier P., Larrieu G., Le Bars J.. Comparative incidence of oral ochratoxicosis and aflatoxicosis on the activity of drug-metabolizing enzymes in rat liver. Toxicology letters. 1984;23:341–347.

Suzuki S., Satoh T., Yamazaki M.. Effect of ochratoxin A on carbohydrate metabolism in rat liver. Toxicology and applied pharmacology. 1975;32:116–122.

Pitout M. J.. The effect of ochratoxin A on glycogen storage in the rat liver. Toxicology and applied pharmacology. 1968;13:299–306.

Theron J. J., Merwe K. J., Liebenberg N., Joubert H. J., Nel W.. Acute liver injury in ducklings and rats as a result of ochratoxin poisoning. The Journal of pathology and bacteriology. 1966;91:521–529.

Atroshi F., Rizzo A., Sankari S., Biese I., Westermarck T., Veijalainen P.. Liver enzyme activities of rats exposed to ochratoxin A and T-2 toxin with antioxidants. Bulletin of environmental contamination and toxicology. 2000;64:586–592.

__Urinary & Bladder Effects

Gazinska Patrycja, Herman Diana, Gillett Cheryl, Pinder Sarah, Mantle Peter. Comparative immunohistochemical analysis of ochratoxin A tumourigenesis in rats and urinary tract carcinoma in humans; mechanistic significance of p-S6 ribosomal protein expression. Toxins. 2012;4:643–662.

Aslam Muhammad, Rivzi S. Abidul Hassan, Beg Anwer Ejaz E., Blaszkewicz Meinolf, Golka Klaus, Degen Gisela H.. Analysis of ochratoxin A blood levels in bladder cancer cases and healthy persons from Pakistan. Journal of toxicology and environmental health. Part A. 2012;75:1176–1184.

Mantle Peter G., Nicholls Andrew W., Shockcor John P.. H NMR spectroscopy-based metabolomic assessment of uremic toxicity, with toxicological outcomes, in male rats following an acute, mid-life insult from ochratoxin a. Toxins. 2011;3:504–519.

Aslam M., Beg A. E., Blaszkewicz M., Degen G. H., Golka K.. Ochratoxin A blood concentration in healthy subjects and bladder cancer cases from Pakistan. Mycotoxin research. 2005;21:164–167.

Föllmann W., Lebrun S.. Uptake and genotoxic effects of ochratoxin A in cultured porcine urinary bladder epithelial cells. Mycotoxin research. 2003;19:24–26.

Ozçelik N., Ko?ar A., Soysal D.. Ochratoxin A in human serum samples collected in Isparta-Turkey from healthy individuals and individuals suffering from different urinary disorders. Toxicology letters. 2001;121:9–13.

Pfohl-Leszkowicz A., Grosse Y., Castegnaro M., et al. Ochratoxin A-related DNA adducts in urinary tract tumours of Bulgarian subjects. IARC scientific publications. 1993:141–148.

__Cancer

Kumar Rahul, Alam Shamshad, Chaudhari Bhushan P., et al. Ochratoxin A-induced cell proliferation and tumor promotion in mouse skin by activating the expression of cyclin-D1 and cyclooxygenase-2 through nuclear factor-kappa B and activator protein-1. Carcinogenesis. 2013;34:647–657.

Kumar Rahul, Ansari Kausar M., Chaudhari Bhushan P., et al. Topical application of ochratoxin A causes DNA damage and tumor initiation in mouse skin. PloS one. 2012;7.

Pfohl-Leszkowicz Annie, Manderville Richard A.. An update on direct genotoxicity as a molecular mechanism of ochratoxin a carcinogenicity. Chemical research in toxicology. 2012;25:252–262.

Czakai Kristin, Müller Katja, Mosesso Pasquale, et al. Perturbation of mitosis through inhibition of histone acetyltransferases: the key to ochratoxin a toxicity and carcinogenicity? Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology. 2011;122:317–329.

Marin-Kuan M., Ehrlich V., Delatour T., Cavin C., Schilter B.. Evidence for a role of oxidative stress in the carcinogenicity of ochratoxin a. Journal of toxicology. 2011;2011. Stoev Stoycho D.. Studies on carcinogenic and toxic effects of ochratoxin A in chicks. Toxins. 2010;2:649–664.

Adler Melanie, Müller Katja, Rached Eva, Dekant Wolfgang, Mally Angela. Modulation of key regulators of mitosis linked to chromosomal instability is an early event in ochratoxin A carcinogenicity. Carcinogenesis. 2009;30:711–719.

Marin-Kuan Maricel, Cavin Christophe, Delatour Thierry, Schilter Benoît. Ochratoxin A carcinogenicity involves a complex network of epigenetic mechanisms. Toxicon. 2008;52:195–202.

Mosesso Pasquale, Cinelli Serena, Piñero Joaquin, Bellacima Raffaela, Pepe Gaetano. In vitro cytogenetic results supporting a DNA nonreactive mechanism for ochratoxin A, potentially relevant for its carcinogenicity. Chemical research in toxicology. 2008;21:1235–1243.

Marin-Kuan M., Nestler S., Verguet C., et al. A toxicogenomics approach to identify new plausible epigenetic mechanisms of ochratoxin a carcinogenicity in rat. Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology. 2006;89:120–134.

Clark Heather A., Snedeker Suzanne M.. Ochratoxin a: its cancer risk and potential for exposure. Journal of toxicology and environmental health. Part B, Critical reviews. 2006;9:265–296.

Schilter Benoît, Marin-Kuan Maricel, Delatour Thierry, Nestler Sandra, Mantle Peter, Cavin Christophe. Ochratoxin A: potential epigenetic mechanisms of toxicity and carcinogenicity. Food additives and contaminants. 2005;22 Suppl 1:88–93.

Son Woo-Chan C., Kamino Kenji, Lee Yong-Soon S., Kang Kyung-Sun S.. Strainspecific mammary proliferative lesion development following lifetime oral administration of ochratoxin A in DA and Lewis rats. International journal of cancer. Journal international du cancer. 2003;105:305–311.

Zepnik H., Pähler A., Schauer U., Dekant W.. Ochratoxin A-induced tumor formation: is there a role of reactive ochratoxin A metabolites? Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology. 2001;59:59–67.

Palli D., Miraglia M., Saieva C., et al. Serum levels of ochratoxin A in healthy adults in Tuscany: correlation with individual characteristics and between repeat measurements. Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology. 1999;8:265–269.

Pfohl-Leszkowicz A., Pinelli E., Bartsch H., Mohr U., Castegnaro M.. Sex and strain specific expression of cytochrome P450s in ochratoxin A-induced genotoxicity and  carcinogenicity in rats. Molecular carcinogenesis. 1998;23:76–85.

Schlatter C., Studer-Rohr J., Rásonyi T.. Carcinogenicity and kinetic aspects of ochratoxin A. Food additives and contaminants. 1996;13 Suppl:43–44.

Groene E. M., Hassing I. G., Blom M. J., Seinen W., Fink-Gremmels J., Horbach G. J.. Development of human cytochrome P450-expressing cell lines: application in mutagenicity testing of ochratoxin A. Cancer research. 1996;56:299–304.

Huff J. E.. Carcinogenicity of ochratoxin A in experimental animals. IARC scientific publications. 1991:229–244.

__Neurological Effects

Zurich Marie-Gabrielle G., Honegger Paul. Ochratoxin A at nanomolar concentration perturbs the homeostasis of neural stem cells in highly differentiated but not in immature three-dimensional brain cell cultures. Toxicology letters. 2011;205:203–208.

Doi Kunio, Uetsuka Koji. Mechanisms of Mycotoxin-Induced Neurotoxicity through Oxidative Stress-Associated Pathways. International journal of molecular sciences. 2011;12:5213–5237.

Razafimanjato Helisoa, Garmy Nicolas, Guo Xiao-Jun J., et al. The food-associated fungal neurotoxin ochratoxin A inhibits the absorption of glutamate by astrocytes through a decrease in cell surface expression of the excitatory amino-acid transporters GLAST and GLT-1. Neurotoxicology. 2010;31:475–484.

Zhang Xiangnan, Boesch-Saadatmandi Christine, Lou Yijia, Wolffram Siegfried, Huebbe Patricia, Rimbach Gerald. Ochratoxin A induces apoptosis in neuronal cells. Genes & nutrition. 2009;4:41–48.

Yoon Somy, Cong Wei-Tao T., Bang Yeojin, et al. Proteome response to ochratoxin A induced apoptotic cell death in mouse hippocampal HT22 cells. Neurotoxicology. 2009;30:666–676.

Sava Vasyl, Velasquez Adriana, Song Shijie, Sanchez-Ramos Juan. Adult hippocampal neural stem/progenitor cells in vitro are vulnerable to the mycotoxin ochratoxin-A. Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology. 2007;98:187–197.

Sava V., Reunova O., Velasquez A., Harbison R., Sánchez-Ramos J.. Acute neurotoxic effects of the fungal metabolite ochratoxin-A. Neurotoxicology. 2006;27:82–92.

Sava V., Reunova O., Velasquez A., Sanchez-Ramos J.. Can low level exposure to ochratoxin-A cause parkinsonism? Journal of the neurological sciences. 2006;249:68–75.

Zurich M-G G., Lengacher S., Braissant O., Monnet-Tschudi F., Pellerin L., Honegger P.. Unusual astrocyte reactivity caused by the food mycotoxin ochratoxin A in aggregating rat brain cell cultures. Neuroscience. 2005;134:771–782.

Oh Jae Ho H., Jung Hai Kwan K., Park Yun Ju J., et al. Inhibitory effects of ochratoxin A on nerve growth factor-induced neurite extension through downregulation of p38 MAP kinase and AP-1 activation in cultured pheochromocytoma cells. Journal of toxicology and environmental health. Part A. 2004;67:357–371.

Delibas Namik, Altuntas Irfan, Yonden Zafer, Ozcelik Nurten. Ochratoxin A reduces NMDA receptor subunits 2A and 2B concentrations in rat hippocampus: partial protective effect of melatonin. Human & experimental toxicology. 2003;22:335–339.

Belmadani A., Steyn P. S., Tramu G., Betbeder A. M., Baudrimont I., Creppy E. E.. Selective toxicity of ochratoxin A in primary cultures from different brain regions. Archives of toxicology. 1999;73:108–114.

Bruinink A., Rasonyi T., Sidler C.. Differences in neurotoxic effects of ochratoxin A, ochracin and ochratoxin-alpha in vitro. Natural toxins. 1998;6:173–177.

Carratú M. R., Belmadani A., Cuomo V., Creppy E. E.. Potassium channel modulation by the pseudopeptide ochratoxin A in rat nerve fibers. Journal of neuroscience research. 1998;53:312–317.

Belmadani A., Tramu G., Betbeder A. M., Steyn P. S., Creppy E. E.. Regional selectivity to ochratoxin A, distribution and cytotoxicity in rat brain. Archives of toxicology. 1998;72:656–662.

Monnet-Tschudi F., Sorg O., Honegger P., Zurich M. G., Huggett A. C., Schilter B.. Effects of the naturally occurring food mycotoxin ochratoxin A on brain cells in culture. Neurotoxicology. 1997;18:831–839.

Zani?-Grubisi? T., Santini A., Cepelak I., Barisi? K., Jureti? D., Pepeljnjak S.. Influence of ochratoxin A treatment on the activity of membrane bound enzymes in rat brain regions. Biological chemistry Hoppe-Seyler. 1996;377:121–127.

Miki T., Fukui Y., Uemura N., Takeuchi Y.. Regional difference in the neurotoxicity of ochratoxin A on the developing cerebral cortex in mice. Brain research. Developmental brain research. 1994;82:259–264.

Fukui Y., Hayasaka S., Itoh M., Takeuchi Y.. Development of neurons and synapses in ochratoxin A-induced microcephalic mice: a quantitative assessment of somatosensory cortex. Neurotoxicology and teratology. 1992;14:191–196.

__Immune System Effects

Hassan Zahoor Ul U., Khan Muhammad Zargham Z., Saleemi Muhammad Kashif K., Khan Ahrar, Javed Ijaz, Noreen Mnaza. Immunological responses of male White Leghorn chicks kept on ochratoxin A (OTA)-contaminated feed. Journal of immunotoxicology. 2012;9:56–63.

Hassan Zahoor, Khan Muhammad Zargham Z., Khan Ahrar, Javed Ijaz, Noreen Mnaza. In vivo and ex vivo phagocytic potential of macrophages from progeny of breeder hens kept on ochratoxin A (OTA)-contaminated diet. Journal of immunotoxicology. 2012;9:64–71.

Ul-Hassan Zahoor, Khan Muhammad Zargham Z., Khan Ahrar, Javed Ijaz. Immunological status of the progeny of breeder hens kept on ochratoxin A (OTA)- and aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1))-contaminated feeds. Journal of immunotoxicology. 2012;9:381–391.

Liu Jing, Wang Yuan, Cui Jinfeng, et al. Ochratoxin A induces oxidative DNA damage and G1 phase arrest in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro. Toxicology letters. 2012;211:164–171.

Hassan Zahoor, Khan Muhammad Zargham Z., Saleemi Muhammad Kashif K., Khan Ahrar, Javed Ijaz, Hussain Alamdar. Immunological status of White Leghorn chicks hatched from eggs inoculated with ochratoxin A (OTA). Journal of immunotoxicology. 2011;8:204–209.

Xue C. Y., Wang G. H., Chen F., Zhang X. B., Bi Y. Z., Cao Y. C.. Immunopathological effects of ochratoxin A and T-2 toxin combination on broilers. Poultry science. 2010;89:1162–1166.

Mwanza Mulunda, Kametler Lazlow, Bonai Alex, Rajli Veronika, Kovacs Melinda, Dutton Michael Francis F.. The cytotoxic effect of fumonisin B1 and ochratoxin A on human and pig lymphocytes using the Methyl Thiazol Tetrazolium (MTT) assay. Mycotoxin research. 2009;25:233–238.

Wang G. H., Xue C. Y., Chen F., et al. Effects of combinations of ochratoxin A and T-2 toxin on immune function of yellow-feathered broiler chickens. Poultry science. 2009;88:504–510.

Maenetje Pholo W., Villiers Neil, Dutton Mike F.. The use of isolated human lymphocytes in mycotoxin cytotoxicity testing. International journal of molecular sciences. 2008;9:1515–1526.

Rossiello Maria R., Rotunno Crescenzia, Coluccia Addolorata, et al. Ochratoxin A inhibits the production of tissue factor and plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 by human blood mononuclear cells: another potential mechanism of immune-suppression. Toxicology and applied pharmacology. 2008;229:227–231.

Odhav Bharti, Adam Jamila K., Bhoola Kanti D.. Modulating effects of fumonisin B1 and ochratoxin A on leukocytes and messenger cytokines of the human immune system. International immunopharmacology. 2008;8:799–809.

Ferrante M. C., Raso G. Mattace, Bilancione M., Esposito E., Iacono A., Meli R.. Differential modification of inflammatory enzymes in J774A.1 macrophages by ochratoxin A alone or in combination with lipopolysaccharide. Toxicology letters. 2008;181:40–46.

Ferrante Maria Carmela C., Bilancione Marcella, Raso Giuseppina Mattace M., et al. Expression of COX-2 and hsp72 in peritoneal macrophages after an acute ochratoxin A treatment in mice. Life sciences. 2006;79:1242–1247.

Al-Anati L., Petzinger E.. Immunotoxic activity of ochratoxin A. Journal of veterinary pharmacology and therapeutics. 2006;29:79–90.

Alvarez-Erviti L., Leache C., González-Peñas E., Cerain A. López. Alterations induced in vitro by ochratoxin A in rat lymphoid cells. Human & experimental toxicology. 2005;24:459–466.

Richetti Adriana, Cavallaro Antonia, Ainis Tommaso, Fimiani Vincenzo. Effect of mycotoxins on some activities of isolated human neutrophils. Immunopharmacology and immunotoxicology. 2005;27:433–446.

Müller Günter, Burkert Beate, Möller Uta, et al. Ochratoxin A and some of its derivatives modulate radical formation of porcine blood monocytes and granulocytes. Toxicology. 2004;199:251–259.

Verma J., Johri T. S., Swain B. K., Ameena S.. Effect of graded levels of aflatoxin, ochratoxin and their combinations on the performance and immune response of broilers. British poultry science. 2004;45:512–518.

Alvarez L., Gil A. G., Ezpeleta O., García-Jalón J. A., Cerain A.. Immunotoxic effects of Ochratoxin A in Wistar rats after oral administration. Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association. 2004;42:825–834.

Keblys Modestas, Bernhoft Aksel, Höfer Constance C., Morrison Ellen, Larsen Hans Jørgen J., Flåøyen Arne. The effects of the Penicillium mycotoxins citrinin, cyclopiazonic acid, ochratoxin A, patulin, penicillic acid, and roquefortine C on in vitro proliferation of porcine lymphocytes. Mycopathologia. 2004;158:317–324.

Assaf Hind, Azouri Hayat, Pallardy Marc. Ochratoxin A induces apoptosis in human lymphocytes through down regulation of Bcl-xL. Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology. 2004;79:335–344.

Lioi M. B., Santoro A., Barbieri R., Salzano S., Ursini M. V.. Ochratoxin A and zearalenone: a comparative study on genotoxic effects and cell death induced in bovine lymphocytes. Mutation research. 2004;557:19–27.

Bernhoft Aksel, Keblys Modestas, Morrison Ellen, Larsen Hans Jørgen J., Flåøyen Arne. Combined effects of selected Penicillium mycotoxins on in vitro proliferation of porcine lymphocytes. Mycopathologia. 2004;158:441–450.

Müller Günter, Rosner Heino, Rohrmann Barbara, et al. Effects of the mycotoxin ochratoxin A and some of its metabolites on the human cell line THP-1. Toxicology. 2003;184:69–82.

Köhler H., Heller M., Erler W., Müller G.. Effects of a long-term exposure with OTA or OTC on functions of a human monocytic cell line. Mycotoxin research. 2003;19:108–112.

Dönmez-Altunta? Hamiyet, Hamurcu Zuhal, Imamoglu Nalan, Liman Bilal Cem C.. Effects of ochratoxin A on micronucleus frequency in human lymphocytes. Die Nahrung. 2003;47:33–35.

Richetti Adriana, Cavallaro Antonia, Ainis Tommaso, Fimiani Vincenzo. Effect of some mycotoxins on superoxide anion production of isolated human neutrophils and in whole blood. Immunopharmacology and immunotoxicology. 2003;25:441–449.

Köhler H., Heller M., Erler W., Müller G., Rosner H., Gräfe U.. Effect of ochratoxin A and ochratoxin C on the monocyte and lymphocyte function. Mycotoxin research. 2002;18 Suppl 2:169–172.

Heller M., Rosner H., Burkert B., et al. [In vitro studies into the influence of ochratoxin A on the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha by the human monocytic cell line THP-1]. DTW. Deutsche tierärztliche Wochenschrift. 2002;109:200–205.

Nuntharatanapong N., Suramana T., Chaemthavorn S., et al. Increase in tumour necrosis factor-alpha and a change in the lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme pattern in plasma of workers exposed to aflatoxin-contaminated feeds. Arhiv za higijenu rada i toksikologiju. 2001;52:291–298.

Müller G., Kielstein P., Rosner H., Berndt A., Heller M., Köhler H.. Studies of the influence of ochratoxin A on immune and defence reactions in weaners. Mycoses. 1999;42:495–505.

Müller G., Kielstein P., Rosner H., Berndt A., Heller M., Köhler H.. Studies on the influence of combined administration of ochratoxin A, fumonisin B1, deoxynivalenol and T2 toxin on immune and defence reactions in weaner pigs. Mycoses. 1999;42:485–493.

Charoenpornsook K., Fitzpatrick J. L., Smith J. E.. The effects of four mycotoxins on the mitogen stimulated proliferation of bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro. Mycopathologia. 1998;143:105–111.

Verma R. J., Mathew S.. Alterations in total and differential counts of WBC during ochratoxicosis in rabbits. Indian journal of experimental biology. 1998;36:424–425.

Marin M. L., Murtha J., Dong W., Pestka J. J.. Effects of mycotoxins on cytokine production and proliferation in EL-4 thymoma cells. Journal of toxicology and environmental health. 1996;48:379–396.

Ueno Y., Umemori K., Niimi E., et al. Induction of apoptosis by T-2 toxin and other natural toxins in HL-60 human promyelotic leukemia cells. Natural toxins. 1995;3:129–137.

Størmer F. C., Lea T.. Effects of ochratoxin A upon early and late events in human T-cell proliferation. Toxicology. 1995;95:45–50.

Müller G., Kielstein P., Köhler H., Berndt A., Rosner H.. Studies of the influence of ochratoxin A on immune and defense reactions in the mouse model. Mycoses. 1995;38:85–91.

Thuvander A., Breitholtz-Emanuelsson A., Olsen M.. Effects of ochratoxin A on the mouse immune system after subchronic exposure. Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association. 1995;33:1005–1011.

Harvey R. B., Elissalde M. H., Kubena L. F., Weaver E. A., Corrier D. E., Clement B. A.. Immunotoxicity of ochratoxin A to growing gilts. American journal of veterinary research. 1992;53:1966–1970.

Singh G. S., Chauhan H. V., Jha G. J., Singh K. K.. Immunosuppression due to chronic ochratoxicosis in broiler chicks. Journal of comparative pathology. 1990;103:399–410. Pestka J. J., Bondy G. S.. Alteration of immune function following dietary mycotoxin exposure. Canadian journal of physiology and pharmacology. 1990;68:1009–1016.

Lea T., Steien K., Størmer F. C.. Mechanism of ochratoxin A-induced immunosuppression. Mycopathologia. 1989;107:153–159.

Holmberg T., Thuvander A., Hult K.. Ochratoxin A as a suppressor of mitogen-induced blastogenesis of porcine blood lymphocytes. Acta veterinaria Scandinavica. 1988;29:219–223.

Hong H. H., Jameson C. W., Boorman G. A.. Residual hematopoietic effect in mice exposed to ochratoxin A prior to irradiation. Toxicology. 1988;53:57–67.

Luster M. I., Germolec D. R., Burleson G. R., et al. Selective immunosuppression in mice of natural killer cell activity by ochratoxin A. Cancer research. 1987;47:2259–2263.

Dwivedi P., Burns R. B.. Immunosuppressive effects of ochratoxin A in young turkeys. Avian pathology : journal of the W.V.P.A. 1985;14:213–225.

Boorman G. A., Hong H. L., Dieter M. P., et al. Myelotoxicity and macrophage alteration in mice exposed to ochratoxin A. Toxicology and applied pharmacology. 1984;72:304–312.

Creppy E. E., Størmer F. C., Röschenthaler R., Dirheimer G.. Effects of two metabolites of ochratoxin A, (4R)-4-hydroxyochratoxin A and ochratoxin alpha, on immune response in mice. Infection and immunity. 1983;39:1015–1018.

Prior M. G., Sisodia C. S.. The effects of ochratoxin A on the immune response of Swiss mice. Canadian journal of comparative medicine. Revue canadienne de médecine comparée. 1982;46:91–96.

__Effects on Pathogens

Kibugu J. K., Ngeranwa J. J., Makumi J. N., et al. Aggravation of pathogenesis mediated by ochratoxin A in mice infected with Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense. Parasitology. 2009;136:273–281.

Gupta Sanjeev, Jindal Naresh, Khokhar Raj S., Asrani Rajesh K., Ledoux David R., Rottinghaus George E.. Individual and combined effects of ochratoxin A and Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum infection on pathological changes in broiler chickens. Avian pathology : journal of the W.V.P.A. 2008;37:265–272.

Koynarski V., Stoev S., Grozeva N., et al. Experimental coccidiosis provoked by Eimeria acervulina in chicks simultaneously fed on ochratoxin A contaminated diet. Research in veterinary science. 2007;82:225–231.

Gupta S., Jindal N., Khokhar R. S., Gupta A. K., Ledoux D. R., Rottinghaus G. E.. Effect of ochratoxin A on broiler chicks challenged with Salmonella gallinarum. British poultry science. 2005;46:443–450.

Kumar Arvind, Jindal Naresh, Shukla Chhote L., Asrani Rajesh K., Ledoux David R., Rottinghaus George E.. Pathological changes in broiler chickens fed ochratoxin A and inoculated with Escherichia coli. Avian pathology : journal of the W.V.P.A. 2004;33:413–417.

Kumar A., Jindal N., Shukla C. L., Pal Yash, Ledoux D. R., Rottinghaus G. E.. Effect of ochratoxin A on Escherichia coli-challenged broiler chicks. Avian diseases. 2003;47:415–424.

Stoev S. D., Koynarsky V., Mantle P. G.. Clinicomorphological studies in chicks fed ochratoxin A while simultaneously developing coccidiosis. Veterinary research communications. 2002;26:189–204.

Stoev S. D., Goundasheva D., Mirtcheva T., Mantle P. G.. Susceptibility to secondary bacterial infections in growing pigs as an early response in ochratoxicosis. Experimental and toxicologic pathology. 2000;52:287–296.

Sandhu B. S., Singh B., Brar R. S.. Haematological and biochemical studies in broiler chicks fed ochratoxin and inoculated with inclusion body hepatitis virus, singly and in concurrence. Veterinary research communications. 1998;22:335–346.

Ali-Vehmas T., Rizzo A., Westermarck T., Atroshi F.. Measurement of antibacterial activities of T-2 toxin, deoxynivalenol, ochratoxin A, aflatoxin B1 and fumonisin B1 using microtitration tray-based turbidimetric techniques. Zentralblatt für Veterinärmedizin. Reihe A. 1998;45:453–458.

Fukata T., Sasai K., Baba E., Arakawa A.. Effect of ochratoxin A on Salmonella typhimurium-challenged layer chickens. Avian diseases. 1996;40:924–926. Sandhu B. S., Singh H., Singh B.. Pathological studies in broiler chicks fed aflatoxin or ochratoxin and inoculated with inclusion body hepatitis virus singly and in concurrence. Veterinary research communications. 1995;19:27–37.

Elissalde M. H., Ziprin R. L., Huff W. E., Kubena L. F., Harvey R. B.. Effect of ochratoxin A on Salmonella-challenged broiler chicks. Poultry science. 1994;73:1241–1248.

Singh H., Singh B., Roy K. S., Singh B.. Histochemical/histoenzymic studies in broiler chicks fed aflatoxin, ochratoxin and inoculated with inclusion body hepatitis virus singly and in concurrence. Mycopathologia. 1994;125:119–128.

__Gastrointestinal Effects

Cui Jinfeng, Liu Jing, Wu Sha, et al. Oxidative DNA damage is involved in ochratoxin A induced G2 arrest through ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) pathways in human gastric epithelium GES-1 cells in vitro. Archives of toxicology. 2013.

Grenier Bertrand, Applegate Todd J.. Modulation of intestinal functions following mycotoxin ingestion: meta-analysis of published experiments in animals. Toxins. 2013;5:396–430.

Wang Yuan, Liu Jing, Cui Jinfeng, et al. ERK and p38 MAPK signaling pathways are involved in ochratoxin A-induced G2 phase arrest in human gastric epithelium cells. Toxicology letters. 2012;209:186–192.

Cui Jinfeng, Xing Lingxiao, Li Zengning, et al. Ochratoxin A induces G(2) phase arrest in human gastric epithelium GES-1 cells in vitro. Toxicology letters. 2010;193:152–158.

Maresca Marc, Yahi Nouara, Younès-Sakr Lama, Boyron Marilyn, Caporiccio Bertrand, Fantini Jacques. Both direct and indirect effects account for the pro-inflammatory activity of enteropathogenic mycotoxins on the human intestinal epithelium: stimulation of interleukin-8 secretion, potentiation of interleukin-1beta effect and increase in the transepithelial passage of commensal bacteria. Toxicology and applied pharmacology. 2008;228:84–92.

Ranaldi G., Mancini E., Ferruzza S., Sambuy Y., Perozzi G.. Effects of red wine on ochratoxin A toxicity in intestinal Caco-2/TC7 cells. Toxicology in vitro : an international journal published in association with BIBRA. 2007;21:204–210.

Sergent Thérèse, Garsou Serge, Schaut Annelore, et al. Differential modulation of ochratoxin A absorption across Caco-2 cells by dietary polyphenols, used at realistic intestinal concentrations. Toxicology letters. 2005;159:60–70.

McLaughlin John, Padfield Philip J., Burt Julian P., O?Neill Catherine A.. Ochratoxin A increases permeability through tight junctions by removal of specific claudin isoforms. American journal of physiology. Cell physiology. 2004;287.

Berger Valérie, Gabriel Anne-Françoise F., Sergent Thérèse, Trouet André, Larondelle Yvan, Schneider Yves-Jacques J.. Interaction of ochratoxin A with human intestinal Caco-2 cells: possible implication of a multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP2). Toxicology letters. 2003;140-141:465–476.

Maresca M., Mahfoud R., Pfohl-Leszkowicz A., Fantini J.. The mycotoxin ochratoxin A alters intestinal barrier and absorption functions but has no effect on chloride secretion. Toxicology and applied pharmacology. 2001;176:54–63.

Subramanian S., Balasubramanian N., William S., Govindasamy S.. In vivo absorption of 14C-glucose and 14C-glycine by the rat intestine during ochratoxin A toxicosis. Biochemistry international. 1991;23:655–661.

Kanisawa M., Suzuki S., Moroi K.. The mode of action of ochratoxin A in acute enteritis in rats. Journal of environmental pathology, toxicology and oncology. 1990;10:56–63.

__Reproductive System Effects

Muñoz K., Wollin K. M., Kalhoff H., Degen G.. Zum Vorkommen des Mykotoxins Ochratoxin A in Muttermilchproben aus Deutschland Das Gesundheitswesen. 2013;75:194–197.

Verma Ramtej, Chakraborty Devjani. Emblica officinalis aqueous extract ameliorates ochratoxin-induced lipid peroxidation in the testis of mice. Acta poloniae pharmaceutica. 2008;65:187–194.

Biró Krisztina, Barna-Vetró Ildikó, Pécsi Tamás, et al. Evaluation of spermatological parameters in ochratoxin A–challenged boars. Theriogenology. 2003;60:199–207. Gharbi A., Trillon O., Betbeder A. M., et al. Some effects of ochratoxin A, a mycotoxin

contaminating feeds and food, on rat testis. Toxicology. 1993;83:9–18. Diekman M. A., Green M. L.. Mycotoxins and reproduction in domestic livestock. Journal of animal science. 1992;70:1615–1627.

Fenske M., Fink-Gremmels J.. Effects of fungal metabolites on testosterone secretion in vitro. Archives of toxicology. 1990;64:72–75.

Gupta M., Bandyopadhyay S., Mazumdar S. K., Paul B.. Ovarian steroidogenesis in rats following ochratoxin A treatment. Toxicology and applied pharmacology. 1980;53:515–520.

Gupta M., Bandyopadhyay S., Paul B., Mazumdar S. K.. Onset of puberty and ovarian steroidogenesis following administration of ochratoxin A. Endokrinologie. 1980;75:292–298.

Moré J., Camguilhem R.. Effects of low doses of ochratoxin A after intratesticular injection in the rat. Experientia. 1979;35:890–892.

Paul B., Deb C., Banik S.. Testicular steroidogenesis in rats following ochratoxin A treatment. Indian journal of experimental biology. 1979;17:121–123.

__Endocrine Effects

__Effects on Bones and Skin

__Blood Sugar Effects

__Respiratory Effects

__Adipose Tissue Effects

__Endothelial Cell Effects

__Human Serum Albumin Effects

__Genotoxic Effects

Hibi Daisuke, Kijima Aki, Suzuki Yuta, et al. Effects of p53 knockout on ochratoxin A induced genotoxicity in p53-deficient gpt delta mice. Toxicology. 2013;304:92–99.

Hibi Daisuke, Kijima Aki, Kuroda Ken, et al. Molecular mechanisms underlying ochratoxin A-induced genotoxicity: global gene expression analysis suggests induction of DNA double-strand breaks and cell cycle progression. The Journal of toxicological sciences. 2013;38:57–69.

Mutlu Ayse Gul G.. Increase in mitochondrial DNA copy number in response to ochratoxin A and methanol-induced mitochondrial DNA damage in Drosophila. Bulletin of environmental contamination and toxicology. 2012;89:1129–1132.

Hadjeba-Medjdoub Kheira, Tozlovanu Mariana, Pfohl-Leszkowicz Annie, Frenette Christine, Paugh Robert J., Manderville Richard A.. Structure-activity relationships imply different mechanisms of action for ochratoxin A-mediated cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. Chemical research in toxicology. 2012;25:181–190.

Ali Rahat, Mittelstaedt Roberta A., Shaddock Joseph G., et al. Comparative analysis of micronuclei and DNA damage induced by Ochratoxin A in two mammalian cell lines. Mutation research. 2011;723:58–64.

Lerda D., Biagi Bistoni M., Pelliccioni P., Litterio N.. Allium cepa as a biomonitor of ochratoxin A toxicity and genotoxicity. Plant biology (Stuttgart, Germany). 2010;12:685–688.

Klari? Maja Segvi? S., Darabos Dina, Rozgaj Ruzica, Kasuba Vilena, Pepeljnjak Stjepan. Beauvericin and ochratoxin A genotoxicity evaluated using the alkaline comet assay: single and combined genotoxic action. Archives of toxicology. 2010;84:641–650.

Mantle Peter G., Faucet-Marquis Virginie, Manderville Richard A., Squillaci Bianca, Pfohl-Leszkowicz Annie. Structures of covalent adducts between DNA and ochratoxin a: a new factor in debate about genotoxicity and human risk assessment. Chemical research in toxicology. 2010;23:89–98.

Arbillaga Leire, Azqueta Amaia, Delft Joost H., Cerain Adela. In vitro gene expression data supporting a DNA non-reactive genotoxic mechanism for ochratoxin A. Toxicology and applied pharmacology. 2007;220:216–224.

Föllmann W., Behm C., Degen G. H.. Induction of micronuclei by ochratoxin A is a sensitive parameter of its genotoxicity in cultured cells. Mycotoxin research. 2007;23:101–109.

Tozlovanu Mariana, Faucet-Marquis Virginie, Pfohl-Leszkowicz Annie, Manderville Richard A.. Genotoxicity of the hydroquinone metabolite of ochratoxin A: structureactivity relationships for covalent DNA adduction. Chemical research in toxicology. 2006;19:1241–1247.

Mally Angela, Dekant Wolfgang. DNA adduct formation by ochratoxin A: review of the available evidence. Food additives and contaminants. 2005;22 Suppl 1:65–74.

Mally Angela, Pepe Gaetano, Ravoori Srivani, et al. Ochratoxin a causes DNA damage and cytogenetic effects but no DNA adducts in rats. Chemical research in toxicology. 2005;18:1253–1261.

Manderville Richard A.. A case for the genotoxicity of ochratoxin A by bioactivation and covalent DNA adduction. Chemical research in toxicology. 2005;18:1091–1097.

Degen G. H., Lebrun S., Lektarau Y., Föllmann W.. Modulation of ochratoxin A induced DNA-damage in urothelial cell cultures. Mycotoxin research. 2005;21:57–60.

Föllmann W., Lebrun S.. Repair of ochratoxin A-induced DNA damage and modulation of OTA-related genotoxicity by co-incubation with bile acids and methotrexatein vitro. Mycotoxin research. 2005;21:53–56.

Russo Alessandra, La Fauci Luca, Acquaviva Rosaria, et al. Ochratoxin A-induced DNA damage in human fibroblast: protective effect of cyanidin 3-O-beta-d-glucoside. The Journal of nutritional biochemistry. 2005;16:31–37.

Faucet Virginie, Pfohl-Leszkowicz Annie, Dai Jian, Castegnaro Marcel, Manderville Richard A.. Evidence for covalent DNA adduction by ochratoxin A following chronic exposure to rat and subacute exposure to pig. Chemical research in toxicology. 2004;17:1289–1296.

Föllmann Wolfram, Lucas Stefanie. Effects of the mycotoxin ochratoxin A in a bacterial and a mammalian in vitro mutagenicity test system. Archives of toxicology. 2003;77:298–304.

Lebrun Stefan, Föllmann Wolfram. Detection of ochratoxin A-induced DNA damage in MDCK cells by alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay). Archives of toxicology. 2002;75:734–741.

Lebrun Stefan, Golka Klaus, Föllmann Wolfram, Schulze Harald. Is there an influence of enzyme polymorphisms on ochratoxin A genotoxicity? Mycotoxin research. 2002;18 Suppl 2:173–177.

Gautier J., Richoz J., Welti D. H., et al. Metabolism of ochratoxin A: absence of formation of genotoxic derivatives by human and rat enzymes. Chemical research in toxicology. 2001;14:34–45.

Obrecht-Pflumio S., Dirheimer G.. Horseradish peroxidase mediates DNA and deoxyguanosine 3?-monophosphate adduct formation in the presence of ochratoxin A. Archives of toxicology. 2001;75:583–590.

Obrecht-Pflumio S., Dirheimer G.. In vitro DNA and dGMP adducts formation caused by ochratoxin A. Chemico-biological interactions. 2000;127:29–44.

El Adlouni C., Pinelli E., Azémar B., Zaoui D., Beaune P., Pfohl-Leszkowicz A.. Phenobarbital increases DNA adduct and metabolites formed by ochratoxin A: role of CYP 2C9 and microsomal glutathione-S-transferase. Environmental and molecular mutagenesis. 2000;35:123–131.

Dörrenhaus A., Flieger A., Golka K., et al. Induction of unscheduled DNA synthesis in primary human urothelial cells by the mycotoxin ochratoxin A. Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology. 2000;53:271–277.

Pinelli E., El Adlouni C., Pipy B., Quartulli F., Pfohl-Leszkowicz A.. Roles of cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenases in ochratoxin A genotoxicity in human epithelial lung cells. Environmental toxicology and pharmacology. 1999;7:95–107.

Groene E. M., Jahn A., Horbach G. J., Fink-Gremmels J.. Mutagenicity and genotoxicity of the mycotoxin ochratoxin A. Environmental toxicology and pharmacology. 1996;1:21–26.

Pfohl-Leszkowicz A., Grosse Y., Kane A., Creppy E. E., Dirheimer G.. Differential DNA adduct formation and disappearance in three mouse tissues after treatment with the mycotoxin ochratoxin A. Mutation research. 1993;289:265–273.

Malaveille C., Brun G., Bartsch H.. Genotoxicity of ochratoxin A and structurally related compounds in Escherichia coli strains: studies on their mode of action. IARC scientific publications. 1991:261–266.

Pfohl-Leszkowicz A., Chakor K., Creppy E. E., Dirheimer G.. DNA adduct formation in mice treated with ochratoxin A. IARC scientific publications. 1991:245–253.

St?tina R., Votava M.. Induction of DNA single-strand breaks and DNA synthesis inhibition by patulin, ochratoxin A, citrinin, and aflatoxin B1 in cell lines CHO and AWRF. Folia biologica. 1986;32:128–144.

Bendele A. M., Neal S. B., Oberly T. J., et al. Evaluation of ochratoxin A for mutagenicity in a battery of bacterial and mammalian cell assays. Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association. 1985;23:911–918.

__Oxidative Stress & Glutathione

Tozlovanu Mariana, Canadas Delphine, Pfohl-Leszkowicz Annie, Frenette Christine, Paugh Robert J., Manderville Richard A.. Glutathione conjugates of ochratoxin A as biomarkers of exposure. Arhiv za higijenu rada i toksikologiju. 2012;63:417–427.

Cavin Christophe, Delatour Thierry, Marin-Kuan Maricel, et al. Ochratoxin A-mediated DNA and protein damage: roles of nitrosative and oxidative stresses. Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology. 2009;110:84–94.

Abdel-Wahhab Mosaad A., Abdel-Azim Sekena H., El-Nekeety Aziza A.. Inula crithmoides extract protects against ochratoxin A-induced oxidative stress, clastogenic and mutagenic alterations in male rats. Toxicon. 2008;52:566–573.

Hassen Wafa, Ayed-Boussema Imen, Bouslimi Amel, Bacha Hassen. Heat shock proteins (Hsp 70) response is not systematic to cell stress: case of the mycotoxin ochratoxin A. Toxicology. 2007;242:63–70.

Balogh K., Hausenblasz J., Weber Mária, Erdélyi Márta, Fodor Judit, Mézes M.. Effects of ochratoxin A on some production traits, lipid peroxide and glutathione redox status of weaned piglets. Acta veterinaria Hungarica. 2007;55:463–470.

Domijan Ana-Marija M., Peraica Maja, Vrdoljak Ana Luci? L., Radi? Bozica, Zlender Vilim, Fuchs Radovan. The involvement of oxidative stress in ochratoxin A and fumonisin B1 toxicity in rats. Molecular nutrition & food research. 2007;51:1147–1151.

Palma Nieves, Cinelli Serena, Sapora Orazio, Wilson Samuel H., Dogliotti Eugenia. Ochratoxin A-induced mutagenesis in mammalian cells is consistent with the production of oxidative stress. Chemical research in toxicology. 2007;20:1031–1037.

Lebrun Stefan, Golka Klaus, Schulze Harald, Föllmann Wolfram. Glutathione Stransferase polymorphisms and ochratoxin A toxicity in primary human urothelial cells. Toxicology. 2006;224:81–90.

Kamp Hennicke G., Eisenbrand Gerhard, Schlatter Josef, Würth Kirsten, Janzowski Christine. Ochratoxin A: induction of (oxidative) DNA damage, cytotoxicity and apoptosis in mammalian cell lines and primary cells. Toxicology. 2005;206:413–425.

Gautier J. C., Holzhaeuser D., Markovic J., Gremaud E., Schilter B., Turesky R. J.. Oxidative damage and stress response from ochratoxin a exposure in rats. Free radical biology & medicine. 2001;30:1089–1098.

Hoehler D., Marquardt R. R., McIntosh A. R., Hatch G. M.. Induction of free radicals in hepatocytes, mitochondria and microsomes of rats by ochratoxin A and its analogs. Biochimica et biophysica acta. 1997;1357:225–233.

Hoehler D., Marquardt R. R., McIntosh A. R., Xiao H.. Free radical generation as induced by ochratoxin A and its analogs in bacteria (Bacillus brevis). The Journal of biological chemistry. 1996;271:27388–27394.

Omar R. F., Rahimtula A. D., Bartsch H.. Role of cytochrome P-450 in ochratoxin Astimulated lipid peroxidation. Journal of biochemical toxicology. 1991;6:203–209.

Omar R. F., Hasinoff B. B., Mejilla F., Rahimtula A. D.. Mechanism of ochratoxin A stimulated lipid peroxidation. Biochemical pharmacology. 1990;40:1183–1191.

Rahimtula A. D., Béréziat J. C., Bussacchini-Griot V., Bartsch H.. Lipid peroxidation as a possible cause of ochratoxin A toxicity. Biochemical pharmacology. 1988;37:4469–4477.

__Effects on Robustness and Growth

Pozzo L., Salamano G., Mellia E., et al. Feeding a diet contaminated with ochratoxin A for chickens at the maximum level recommended by the EU for poultry feeds (0.1 mg/kg). 1. Effects on growth and slaughter performance, haematological and serum traits. Journal of animal physiology and animal nutrition. 2013;97 Suppl 1:13–22.

Battacone Gianni, Nudda Anna, Pulina Giuseppe. Effects of ochratoxin a on livestock production. Toxins. 2010;2:1796–1824.

Elaroussi M. A., Mohamed F. R., El Barkouky E. M., Atta A. M., Abdou A. M., Hatab M. H.. Experimental ochratoxicosis in broiler chickens. Avian pathology : journal of the W.V.P.A. 2006;35:263–269.

Blank Ralf, Rolfs Jan-Peter P., Südekum Karl-Heinz H., Frohlich Andrew A., Marquardt Ronald R., Wolffram Siegfried. Effects of chronic ingestion of ochratoxin a on blood levels and excretion of the mycotoxin in sheep. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry. 2003;51:6899–6905.

Stoev S. D., Paskalev M., MacDonald S., Mantle P. G.. Experimental one year ochratoxin A toxicosis in pigs. Experimental and toxicologic pathology. 2002;53:481–487.

Biró Krisztina, Solti László, Barna-Vetró Ildikó, et al. Tissue distribution of ochratoxin A as determined by HPLC and ELISA and histopathological effects in chickens. Avian pathology : journal of the W.V.P.A. 2002;31:141–148.

Zofair S. M., Mathew S., Verma R. J.. Ochratoxin induced hemolysis in rabbits. Indian journal of experimental biology. 1996;34:592–593.

Harvey R. B., Kubena L. F., Elissalde M. H., Rottinghaus G. E., Corrier D. E.. Administration of ochratoxin A and T-2 toxin to growing swine. American journal of veterinary research. 1994;55:1757–1761.

Kozaczy?ski W.. Experimental ochratoxicosis A in chickens. Histopathological and histochemical study. Archivum veterinarium Polonicum / Polish Academy of Sciences, Committee of Veterinary Sciences. 1994;34:205–219.

Mráz A., Kosutzký J.. [Clinical effects and morphological changes after administration of low doses of ochratoxin A to broiler chicks]. Veterinární medicína. 1992;37:237–242.

Ayed I. A., Dafalla R., Yagi A. I., Adam S. E.. Effect on ochratoxin A on Lohmann-type chicks. Veterinary and human toxicology. 1991;33:557–560.

Kubena L. F., Harvey R. B., Huff W. E., Corrier D. E., Philips T. D., Rottinghaus G. E.. Influence of ochratoxin A and T-2 toxin singly and in combination on broiler chickens. Poultry science. 1989;68:867–872.

Harvey R. B., Huff W. E., Kubena L. F., Phillips T. D.. Evaluation of diets contaminated with aflatoxin and ochratoxin fed to growing pigs. American journal of veterinary research. 1989;50:1400–1405.

Kubena L. F., Huff W. E., Harvey R. B., Corrier D. E., Phillips T. D., Creger C. R.. Influence of ochratoxin A and deoxynivalenol on growing broiler chicks. Poultry science. 1988;67:253–260.

Brownie C. F., Brownie C.. Preliminary study on serum enzyme changes in Long Evans rats given parenteral ochratoxin A, aflatoxin B1 and their combination. Veterinary and human toxicology. 1988;30:211–214.

Huff W. E., Kubena L. F., Harvey R. B.. Progression of ochratoxicosis in broiler chickens. Poultry science. 1988;67:1139–1146.

Albassam M. A., Yong S. I., Bhatnagar R., Sharma A. K., Prior M. G.. Histopathologic and electron microscopic studies on the acute toxicity of ochratoxin A in rats. Veterinary pathology. 1987;24:427–435.

Cook W. O., Osweiler G. D., Anderson T. D., Richard J. L.. Ochratoxicosis in Iowa swine. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 1986;188:1399–1402.

Hayes A. W., Cain J. A., Moore B. G.. Effect of aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A and rubratoxin B on infant rats. Food and cosmetics toxicology. 1977;15:23–27.

Szczech G. M., Carlton W. W., Tuite J., Caldwell R.. Ochratoxin A toxicosis in swine. Veterinary pathology. 1973;10:347–364.

Szczech G. M., Carlton W. W., Tuite J.. Ochratoxicosis in Beagle dogs. II. Pathology. Veterinary pathology. 1973;10:219–231.

Szczech G. M., Carlton W. W., Tuite J.. Ochratoxicosis in Beagle dogs. I. Clinical and clinicopathological features. Veterinary pathology. 1973;10:135–154.

Purchase I. F., Watt J. J.. The long-term toxicity of Ochratoxin A to rats. Food and cosmetics toxicology. 1971;9:681–682.

Moore J. H., Truelove B.. Ochratoxin A: inhibition of mitochondrial respiration. Science (New York, N.Y.). 1970;168:1102–1103.

Purchase I. F., Theron J. J.. The acute toxicity of ochratoxin A to rats. Food and cosmetics toxicology. 1968;6:479–483.

__Human Population Levels & Risk Assessment

Giuseppe Romina, Bertuzzi Terenzio, Rossi Filippo, et al. Plasma ochratoxin A levels, food consumption, and risk biomarkers of a representative sample of men and women from the Molise region in Italy. European journal of nutrition. 2012;51:851–860.

Haighton Lois A., Lynch Barry S., Magnuson Bernadene A., Nestmann Earle R.. A reassessment of risk associated with dietary intake of ochratoxin A based on a lifetime exposure model. Critical reviews in toxicology. 2012;42:147–168.

Coronel M. B., Marin S., Tarragó M., Cano-Sancho G., Ramos A. J., Sanchis V.. Ochratoxin A and its metabolite ochratoxin alpha in urine and assessment of the exposure of inhabitants of Lleida, Spain. Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association. 2011;49:1436–1442.

Coronel M. B., Sanchis V., Ramos A. J., Marin S.. Ochratoxin A in adult population of Lleida, Spain: presence in blood plasma and consumption in different regions and seasons. Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association. 2011;49:2697–2705.

Duarte S., Bento J., Pena A., et al. Monitoring of ochratoxin A exposure of the Portuguese population through a nationwide urine survey–Winter 2007. The Science of the total environment. 2010;408:1195–1198.

Erkeko?lu Pinar, Sabuncuo?lu Suna, Aydin Sevtap, Sahin Gönül, Giray Belma. Determination of seasonal variations in serum ochratoxin A levels in healthy population living in some regions of Turkey by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Toxicon. 2010;55:507–513.

Reddy Lalini, Bhoola Kanti. Ochratoxins-food contaminants: impact on human health. Toxins. 2010;2:771–779.

Karima Hmaissia-Khlifa K., Ridha Ghali, Zied Aouni, Chekib Mazigh, Salem Machgoul, Abderrazek Hedhili. Estimation of Ochratoxin A in human blood of healthy Tunisian population. Experimental and toxicologic pathology. 2010;62:539–542.

Kuiper-Goodman T., Hilts C., Billiard S. M., Kiparissis Y., Richard I. D., Hayward S.. Health risk assessment of ochratoxin A for all age-sex strata in a market economy. Food additives & contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, analysis, control, exposure & risk assessment. 2010;27:212–240.

Coronel M. B., Sanchis V., Ramos A. J., Marin S.. Review. Ochratoxin A: presence in human plasma and intake estimation. Food science and technology international = Ciencia y tecnología de los alimentos internacional. 2010;16:5–18.

Medina A., Mateo E. M., Roig R. J., Blanquer A., Jiménez M.. Ochratoxin A levels in the plasma of healthy blood donors from Valencia and estimation of exposure degree: comparison with previous national Spanish data. Food additives & contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, analysis, control, exposure & risk assessment. 2010;27:1273–1284.

Duarte Sofia C., Pena Angelina, Lino Celeste M.. Ochratoxin a in Portugal: a review to assess human exposure. Toxins. 2010;2:1225–1249.

Märtlbauer Erwin, Usleber Ewald, Dietrich Richard, Schneider Elisabeth. Ochratoxin A in human blood serum – retrospective long-term data. Mycotoxin research. 2009;25:175–186.

Duarte S. C., Bento J. M., Pena A., Lino C. M.. Ochratoxin A exposure assessment of the inhabitants of Lisbon during winter 2007/2008 through bread and urine analysis. Food additives & contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, analysis, control, exposure & risk assessment. 2009;26:1411–1420.

Goli?ski P., Wa?kiewicz A., Gromadzka K.. Mycotoxins and mycotoxicoses under climatic conditions of Poland. Polish journal of veterinary sciences. 2009;12:581–588.

Lino C. M., Baeta M. L., Henri M., Dinis A. M., Pena A. S., Silveira M. I.. Levels of ochratoxin A in serum from urban and rural Portuguese populations and estimation of exposure degree. Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association. 2008;46:879–885.

Bayman Paul, Baker James L.. Ochratoxins: a global perspective. Mycopathologia. 2006;162:215–223.

Sangare-Tigori Béatrice, Moukha Serge, Kouadio James H., et al. Ochratoxin A in human blood in Abidjan, Côte d?Ivoire. Toxicon. 2006;47:894–900.

Muñoz Katherine, Vega Mario, Rios Gisela, Muñoz Sara, Madariaga Ricardo. Preliminary study of Ochratoxin A in human plasma in agricultural zones of Chile and its relation to food consumption. Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association. 2006;44:1884–1889.

Pena A., Seifrtová M., Lino C., Silveira I., Solich P.. Estimation of ochratoxin A in portuguese population: new data on the occurrence in human urine by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association. 2006;44:1449–1454.

Creppy Edmond E., Moukha Serge, Bacha Hassen, Carratu Maria Rosaria R.. How much should we involve genetic and environmental factors in the risk assessment of mycotoxins in humans? International journal of environmental research and public health. 2005;2:186–193.

Fazekas B., Tar Andrea, Kovács Melinda. Ochratoxin a content of urine samples of healthy humans in Hungary. Acta veterinaria Hungarica. 2005;53:35–44.

Malír F., Ostrý V., Cerná M., et al. [Monitoring the important mycotoxin biomarkers (ochratoxin A, aflatoxin M1) in the Czech population]. Casopís lékar?? c?eských. 2004;143:691–696.

Assaf Hind, Betbeder Anne-Marie M., Creppy Edmond E., Pallardy Marc, Azouri Hayat. Ochratoxin A levels in human plasma and foods in Lebanon. Human & experimental toxicology. 2004;23:495–501.

Degen G. H., Blaskewicz M., Lektarau Y., Grüner C.. [Ochratoxin a analyses of blood samples from workers at waste handling facilities]. Mycotoxin research. 2003;19:3–7.

Engelhardt G., Kibler R., Verwied-Jorky S., Koletzko B.. The daily dietary intake of ochratoxin a – Results of a duplicate portion study with Bavarian schoolchildren. Mycotoxin research. 2003;19:8–12.

Skaug Marit Aralt A.. Levels of ochratoxin A and IgG against conidia of Penicillium verrucosum in blood samples from healthy farm workers. Annals of agricultural and environmental medicine : AAEM. 2003;10:73–77.

Iavicoli Ivo, Brera Carlo, Carelli Giovanni, Caputi Rosamaria, Marinaccio Alessandro, Miraglia Marina. External and internal dose in subjects occupationally exposed to ochratoxin A. International archives of occupational and environmental health. 2002;75:381–386.

Filali A., Betbeder A. M., Baudrimont I., Benayad A., Soulaymani R., Creppy E. E.. Ochratoxin A in human plasma in Morocco: a preliminary survey. Human & experimental toxicology. 2002;21:241–245.

Thuvander A., Paulsen J. E., Axberg K., et al. Levels of ochratoxin A in blood from Norwegian and Swedish blood donors and their possible correlation with food consumption. Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association. 2001;39:1145–1151.

Domijan A. M., Peraica M., Fuchs R., et al. Ochratoxin A in blood of healthy population in Zagreb. Arhiv za higijenu rada i toksikologiju. 1999;50:263–271.

Fink-Gremmels J.. Mycotoxins: their implications for human and animal health. The Veterinary quarterly. 1999;21:115–120.

Peraica M., Domijan A. M., Fuchs R., Luci? A., Radi? B.. The occurrence of ochratoxin A in blood in general population of Croatia. Toxicology letters. 1999;110:105–112.

Ueno Y., Maki S., Lin J., Furuya M., Sugiura Y., Kawamura O.. A 4-year study of plasma ochratoxin A in a selected population in Tokyo by immunoassay and immunoaffinity column-linked HPLC. Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association. 1998;36:445–449.

Scott P. M., Kanhere S. R., Lau B. P., et al. Survey of Canadian human blood plasma for ochratoxin A. Food additives and contaminants. 1998;15:555–562.

Kovács F., Sándor G., Ványi A., Domány S., Zomborszky-Kovács M.. Detection of ochratoxin a in human blood and colostrum. Acta veterinaria Hungarica. 1995;43:393–400.

Ruprich J., Ostrý V.. Study of human exposure to ochratoxin A and assessment of possible sources. Central European journal of public health. 1993;1:46–48.

Ruprich J., Ostrý V.. Health risk assessment of the mycotoxin ochratoxin A to humans: Czech Republic–Brno–1991/92. Central European journal of public health. 1993;1:86–93.

Creppy E. E., Betbeder A. M., Gharbi A., et al. Human ochratoxicosis in France. IARC scientific publications. 1991:145–151.

Hald B.. Ochratoxin A in human blood in European countries. IARC scientific publications. 1991:159–164.

Fukal L., Reisnerova H.. Monitoring of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in Czechoslovak human sera by immunoassay. Bulletin of environmental contamination and toxicology. 1990;44:345–349.

__Toxicokinetics

Corcuera L. A., Vettorazzi A., Arbillaga L., González-Peñas E., Cerain A.. An approach to the toxicity and toxicokinetics of aflatoxin B1 and ochratoxin A after simultaneous oral administration to fasted F344 rats. Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association. 2012;50:3440–3446.

Wu Qinghua, Dohnal Vlastimil, Huang Lingli, et al. Metabolic pathways of ochratoxin A. Current drug metabolism. 2011;12:1–10.

Vettorazzi A., Trocóniz I. F., Gonzalez-Peñas E., et al. Effects of fasting and gender on ochratoxin A toxicokinetics in F344 rats. Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association. 2010;48:3159–3166.

Vettorazzi A., Gonzalez-Peñas E., Trocóniz I. F., et al. A different kinetic profile of ochratoxin A in mature male rats. Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association. 2009;47:1921–1927.

Mantle Peter G.. Interpretation of the pharmacokinetics of ochratoxin A in blood plasmaof rats, during and after acute or chronic ingestion. Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association. 2008;46:1808–1816.

Ringot Diana, Chango Abalo, Schneider Yves-Jacques J., Larondelle Yvan. Toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics of ochratoxin A, an update. Chemico-biological interactions. 2006;159:18–46.

Scott Peter M.. Biomarkers of human exposure to ochratoxin A. Food additives and contaminants. 2005;22 Suppl 1:99–107.

Dietrich Daniel R., Heussner Alexandra H., O?Brien Evelyn. Ochratoxin A: comparative pharmacokinetics and toxicological implications (experimental and domestic animals and humans). Food additives and contaminants. 2005;22 Suppl 1:45–52.

Simarro Doorten A. Y., Bull S., Doelen M. A., Fink-Gremmels J.. Metabolism-mediated cytotoxicity of ochratoxin A. Toxicology in vitro : an international journal published in association with BIBRA. 2004;18:271–277.

Dai Jian, Park Gyungse, Perry Jennifer L., et al. Molecular aspects of the transport and toxicity of ochratoxin a. Accounts of chemical research. 2004;37:874–881.

Zepnik H., Völkel W., Dekant W.. Metabolism and toxicokinetics of the mycotoxin ochratoxin A in F344 rats. Mycotoxin research. 2003;19:102–107.

Zepnik Herbert, Völkel Wolfgang, Dekant Wolfgang. Toxicokinetics of the mycotoxin ochratoxin A in F 344 rats after oral administration. Toxicology and applied pharmacology. 2003;192:36–44.

Babu Ellappan, Takeda Michio, Narikawa Shinichi, et al. Role of human organic anion transporter 4 in the transport of ochratoxin A. Biochimica et biophysica acta. 2002;1590:64–75.

Dortant P. M., Peters-Volleberg G. W., Van Loveren H., Marquardt R. R., Speijers G. J.. Age-related differences in the toxicity of ochratoxin A in female rats. Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association. 2001;39:55–65.

Stander M. A., Nieuwoudt T. W., Steyn P. S., Shephard G. S., Creppy E. E., Sewram V.. Toxicokinetics of ochratoxin A in vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops). Archives of toxicology. 2001;75:262–269.

Müller H. M., Lerch C., Müller K., Eggert W.. Kinetic profiles of ochratoxin A and ochratoxin alpha during in vitro incubation in buffered forestomach and abomasal contents from cows. Natural toxins. 1998;6:251–258.

Xiao H., Madhyastha S., Marquardt R. R., et al. Toxicity of ochratoxin A, its opened lactone form and several of its analogs: structure-activity relationships. Toxicology and applied pharmacology. 1996;137:182–192.

Fink-Gremmels J., Jahn A., Blom M. J.. Toxicity and metabolism of ochratoxin A. Natural toxins. 1995;3.

Fuchs R., Hult K.. Ochratoxin A in blood and its pharmacokinetic properties. Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association. 1992;30:201–204.

__Combined Mycotoxins

__Inhaled Ochratoxin

__Ochratoxin in Food

Lee Tien Ping P., Saad Bahruddin, Khayoon Wejdan Shakir S., Salleh Baharuddin. Molecularly imprinted polymer as sorbent in micro-solid phase extraction of ochratoxin A in coffee, grape juice and urine. Talanta. 2012;88:129–135.

Coronel M. B., Marín S., Cano-Sancho G., Ramos A. J., Sanchis V.. Exposure assessment to ochratoxin A in Catalonia (Spain) based on the consumption of cereals, nuts, coffee, wine, and beer. Food additives & contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, analysis, control, exposure & risk assessment. 2012;29:979–993.

Ravelo Abreu A., Rubio Armendáriz C., Gutiérrez Fernández A. J., Torre A.. [Ochratoxin A in foods for human consumption: review]. Nutrición hospitalaria. 2011;26:1215–1226.

Muñoz Katherine, Vega Mario, Rios Gisela, Geisen Rolf, Degen Gisela H.. Mycotoxin production by different ochratoxigenic Aspergillus and Penicillium species on coffee and wheat-based media. Mycotoxin research. 2011;27:239–247.

Aoyama Koji, Nakajima Masahiro, Tabata Setsuko, et al. Four-year surveillance for ochratoxin a and fumonisins in retail foods in Japan. Journal of food protection. 2010;73:344–352.

Tozlovanu Mariana, Pfohl-Leszkowicz Annie. Ochratoxin A in roasted coffee from French supermarkets and transfer in coffee beverages: comparison of analysis methods. Toxins. 2010;2:1928–1942.

Kuiper-Goodman T, Hilts C, Billiard SM, Kiparissis Y, Richard ID, Hayward S. Health risk assessment of ochratoxin A for all age-sex strata in a market economy. Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 2010 Feb;27(2):212-40.

Coronel M. B., Sanchis V., Ramos A. J., Marin S.. Assessment of the exposure to ochratoxin A in the province of Lleida, Spain. Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association. 2009;47:2847–2852.

Napolitano Aurora, Fogliano Vincenzo, Tafuri Alessio, Ritieni Alberto. Natural occurrence of ochratoxin A and antioxidant activities of green and roasted coffees and corresponding byproducts. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry. 2007;55:10499–10504.

Sugita-Konishi Yoshiko, Nakajima Masahiro, Tabata Setsuko, et al. Occurrence of aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, and fumonisins in retail foods in Japan. Journal of food protection. 2006;69:1365–1370.

__Treatment & Prevention Strategies

__Probiotic Bacteria

Mechoud Mónica A., Juarez Guillermo E., Valdez Graciela Font F., Rodriguez Ana V.. Lactobacillus reuteri CRL 1098 and Lactobacillus acidophilus CRL 1014 differently reduce in vitro immunotoxic effect induced by Ochratoxin A. Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association. 2012;50:4310–4315.

Mobashar Muhammad, Hummel Jürgen, Blank Ralf, Südekum Karl-Heinz H.. Ochratoxin A in ruminants?A review on its degradation by gut microbes and effects on animals. Toxins. 2010;2:809–839.

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