Magnesium Deficiency Signs and Symptoms & How to Fix It
By: Courtney Sperlazza, MPH
October 23, 2018
- Magnesium deficiency looks like a lot of other conditions, since magnesium is involved in so many body processes.
- Symptoms include heart arrythmias, depression, digestive problems, muscle spasms, and more.
- Low magnesium is caused by things like stress, medicines, alcohol consumption, and certain medical conditions. Modern farming yields lower magnesium plants than previous generations had.
- Keep reading for common magnesium deficiency symptoms and the best ways to correct it.
It’s hard to pinpoint magnesium deficiency as the source of your troubles when the mineral is involved in so many seemingly unrelated functions in your body. Think about it – if you haven’t pooped in three days, you’re snapping at your kids, and you keep losing your car keys, would you think that all of those trace back to the same thing, let alone low magnesium?
What’s more is that these symptoms aren’t always something doctors will treat. Constipated? Eat more fiber. For your temper, just meditate. If you’re forgetful, you’re told it’s all part of the normal aging process. When in reality, a magnesium supplement might help all of this.
RELATED: Instantly download your guide to nootropics to take your supplements game to the next level.
Magnesium deficiency symptoms – what to look for
Magnesium deficiency is one of those things that tricks doctors. It looks like a lot of other conditions, since magnesium is involved in so many things. If you’re deficient, and 80% of people are, the effects range from mildly annoying to serious. Here are the most common signs of low magnesium:
- Aches and pains
- Mood problems
- Muscle cramps
- Irregular sleep patterns and insomnia
- Heart irregularities
- Muscle twitches and spasms
- Digestive trouble
- Lack of appetite
- Brain fog
- Memory problems
The tricky thing is, you can have a magnesium deficiency and display some of these symptoms, or no noticeable symptoms at all. From heart arrhythmias to major depression, ignoring the signs isn’t worth the gamble — especially when magnesium is one of the cheapest, most abundant supplements you can get.
Here’s how to find out if your symptoms are the result of a magnesium deficiency.
How to test for magnesium deficiency
If you’ve tested your magnesium, chances are, you got the wrong test. Blood tests for magnesium aren’t the most accurate, since your body stores over half of its magnesium in the bones and soft tissues. So, you’ll need to test your intracellular magnesium levels, not your serum magnesium.
The magnesium RBC test
The magnesium RBC test measures the amount of magnesium stored in your red blood cells, to give you an indication of how much magnesium your body has in reserves in your bones and soft tissues.
Optimal magnesium range
If your numbers come up below 6.0 mg/dl, you’ll want to supplement. If your lab results are reported in mmol/L, multiply that number by 2.43 to get mg/dl, and see how close you are to 6.0.
This is a functional level. Most labs report a “normal” range, which tells you more about the levels of everyone else’s magnesium than it tells you about the amount your body needs to work properly. Work with a functional medicine doctor to interpret your results.
It’s a good idea to check your vitamin D levels while you’re at it, since magnesium and vitamin D depend on each other for function and absorption. Or, you can go ahead and supplement vitamin D without a test, because most people don’t get enough.
Now that you know you’re low on magnesium, here’s a bit more information on how magnesium affects your body, and the best way to treat each symptom.
Magnesium for moods, concentration, and sleep
Regulation of moods, how clearly you think, and how well you sleep all happen in the brain. On the microscopic level, you can see an intricate network of electrical wires — your brain works and communicates through teeny electrical impulses, firing all day, every day.
Wavering moods, mental clarity, attention problems, and anxiety seem like distinct conditions, but they all have a common thread: they signal that the mitochondria, the structures that power your cells, in your brain are struggling.
Turns out, the availability and balance of magnesium determines how much energy your mitochondria make. The available energy in your brain determines how clearly you think, how intensely you can focus, how calm or anxious you feel, how happy you feel, and how you respond to stress. Having adequate amounts of magnesium will help regulate all of these issues.
Magnesium-rich foods for mood and memory
Foods that contain magnesium along with tryptophan offer a dual-angle approach to enhancing mood and mental clarity. Tryptophan is a precursor to serotonin, the brain chemical that makes you feel happy, focused, and calm. Foods that contain both magnesium and tryptophan include:
- Dark chocolate
Magnesium deficiency and digestive problems, constipation, and PMS
When you eat, your food mixes with saliva and stomach acid to form what’s known as a bolus, a semi-solid lump of food that moves through the digestive system. To move efficiently, it has to be soft, and to be soft, the bolus has to have sufficient water content. Magnesium draws water into the bowels and stimulates peristalsis, or the “waves” of muscle contraction and relaxation that keeps everything moving. Without enough magnesium, the bolus of food moves through the intestines, but it is dry and stiff. That slows everything down and causes constipation.
What does the digestive system have to do with PMS?
PMS points to an excess of estrogen. One of the main ways your body gets rid of estrogen is through the bowels. When your digestive system works well, your body produces and excretes estrogen at a good pace for your body. When things slow down, such as with a magnesium deficiency, estrogen hangs out in your intestinal tract too long.
Your intestinal membranes allow water, fats, and nutrients to pass through while they’re waiting for their exit — that’s a main way you get your nutrition out of your food. Other things that are waiting for departure cross membranes too, like toxic compounds and hormones. That’s why experts tell you to make sure you’re eliminating at least 1-2 times per day before you do a detox.
Whatever amount of estrogen doesn’t leave the body in a timely fashion goes right back into the bloodstream, and stacks on top of the estrogen you’re producing per your regularly scheduled program.
If you’re constipated or have slow digestion because of low magnesium, you may also see PMS relief by supplementing with magnesium.
How does magnesium help you?
Not only does magnesium help keep you regular, it is crucial for Phase II detox in the liver, which also neutralizes excess estrogen. In the liver, estrogen metabolites are converted to water-soluble molecules so you can get them out quickly. Without sufficient magnesium, this process slows down considerably.
Magnesium also helps your body produce sex hormones that balance estrogen, including progesterone and testosterone. On top of that, good magnesium levels improve sleep, and most sex hormones are manufactured when you’re snoozing.
Vegetables that contain both magnesium and fiber will help you go more regularly. Add foods like:
- Spinach (lightly steam it first to reduce the lectin content)
Heart irregularities and muscle spasms from low magnesium
Have you ever cramped up during a run, felt your eyelids twitching, or taken a gasp from fluttering in your chest? It’s all from nerve cells getting over-excited and firing too much.
How and when nerve cells fire depends entirely on electrolyte balance — the concentration of sodium and potassium ions on either side of the cell’s membrane. A portion of electrolytes switch places when the nerve cell fires. Magnesium steps in when there are imbalances. When there’s not enough magnesium available, there’s no stopping an over-excited neuron, and no waking up a lazy one.
Every muscle in your body depends on magnesium to keep this system working properly. If you experience any of the following symptoms, you might need more magnesium for your nerves and muscles to play nicely together:
- Heart irregularities, palpitations or “flutters”
- Muscle spasms
- Muscle cramping
- Restless leg syndrome
- Twitching eyelids, lips, or skeletal muscle
- Nightly leg cramps, especially in pregnancy
Symptoms like these can have a root cause other than magnesium deficiency, and some conditions are serious and require medical attention. So, run your concerns by your doctor and discuss any changes you make.
For skeletal-muscular symptoms, use topical magnesium
Some forms of magnesium absorb through the skin, which makes topical magnesium effective for muscle relief. For muscle cramps or spasms, spray on magnesium oil, which isn’t actually oil at all. It’s magnesium chloride, which feels slippery because it’s slightly more basic than water.
Another topical solution: Take a bath with epsom salts, which are magnesium sulfate crystals. How much you’ll absorb depends on how deficient you are and your body’s other nutrient levels, particularly vitamin D. Pour 1-2 cups of epsom salts into your bath a couple times a week to get a boost, and drink plenty of water when you’re done soaking.
For places you don’t want to spray or soak, like your eyelids, use a magnesium capsule supplement to address those symptoms
For the heart
You’ll need to take magnesium internally for it to work its magic on your heart. Head on over to this article to find the types of magnesium that will absorb most readily in your body.
Why are so many people magnesium deficient?
Statistics depend on who you ask, but it is estimated that over 80% of people are magnesium deficient. Why so many?
You don’t get as much magnesium in your diet as your great-great-grandparents did. With mono-cropping and soil depletion, your vegetables don’t take up as many minerals from the soil as they used to.
Natural spring water used to be a reliable source of minerals, too, but it’s way more likely you’re drinking filtered water from a bottle or your fridge. If you have public water, more than likely it contains fluoride, which depletes magnesium even further.
The good news is, magnesium supplements are super cheap and easy to come by. Once you find the type that’s right for you, you can feel the effects fairly quickly.
Causes of magnesium deficiency
If you’re magnesium deficient, you want to hang onto as much magnesium as you can. These things can work against you, depleting your body of magnesium:
- Over-the-counter and prescription medicines. A wide range of medicines, like antacids, antibiotics, birth control pills, blood pressure medications, stomach acid blockers, and more cut into your magnesium stores.
- Medical conditions. Crohn’s, kidney disorders, Celiac disease, any digestive disorder, diabetes, low stomach acid, and many more affect magnesium absorption and retention.
- Alcohol consumption. Occasional drinks are fine, but regular alcohol consumption destroys your mineral stores, especially magnesium. You can tell drinking throws off your electrolyte balance because you wake up thirsty, puffy, and bloated, all at the same time.
- Stress. Stress kicks magnesium from the inside of your cells to the space outside your cells, which makes your kidneys excrete it faster. If you have stress here and there, you have enough magnesium to recover. Chronic stress tanks your magnesium.
Because magnesium regulates hundreds of processes in your body, it’s a mineral worth looking into. Since it’s difficult to overdo magnesium (your bathroom habits will tell you when you’ve taken it too far), and because you’re likely to see results within a few days, magnesium is a safe supplement to experiment with to see if it helps you.
There are 10 or so more common forms of magnesium supplements on the market, and they don’t all treat the same symptoms. In general, women need about 320 mg of magnesium per day, and men need about 420 mg per day. Read this article next to choose the right magnesium for your body.